Coastal Erosional Landforms Quiz

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What type of landform is created by flowing rivers depositing sediments before flowing into seas and oceans?


Which landform is characterized by the constant deposition of sand and gravel-like particles by waves along the shoreline?


What type of moraine is formed when a glacier recedes, leaving accumulated materials to form lakes?

Terminal moraine

Which landform is composed of sand and gravel size particles and is created in low-lying areas by melting glaciers?


What type of structure is formed when glaciers recede and result in a mass of accumulated sediments?


Which landform is known as the mouth of a river?


In what type of area are eskers typically formed by the melting of glaciers?

Arctic regions

Which type of moraine is formed at the sides of a glacier?

Terminal moraine

What characterizes deltas as a landform?

Deposition of sand and gravel particles by flowing rivers

Which landform creates ridge-like structures comprised of sand and gravel size particles?


What distinguishes glacial moraines from eskers?

Unconsolidated loose accumulated materials

How are beaches primarily formed?

Constant deposition of sand and gravel-like particles by waves

What type of moraine is created when a glacier recedes at the sides?

Lateral moraine

What is the distinguishing characteristic of kames compared to eskers?

Formation when glaciers flow down accumulating sediments

What kind of sediment is typically found in glacial moraines?

Rocks and soils

Study Notes

Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition

  • The Earth's landscape is shaped by three naturally occurring processes: weathering, erosion, and deposition.
  • Weathering is the breakdown of larger rock fragments into smaller particles.
  • It occurs through physical and chemical processes, depending on the environment.

Types of Weathering

  • Freeze and thaw method: water in cracks freezes and expands, increasing the volume of cracks, and eventually leading to the breakdown of rocks.
  • Exfoliation: rock expands during the day and contracts at night due to temperature changes, resulting in peeling off of rocks in layers.
  • Abrasion: water, wind, and ice continuously strike rocks, breaking them down into smaller particles.
  • Hydrolysis: mineral bonds break down when reacting with water.
  • Oxidation: oxygen reacts with metal elements in rocks, weakening their structure.
  • Acid rain weathering: acid in rainwater reacts with minerals in rocks, dissolving them.
  • Biological weathering: plants and animals contribute to rock breakdown through activities like burrowing and trail-making.


  • Erosion is the process of carrying weathered rock particles away from their original location.
  • Transporting agents like wind, water, and glaciers carry sediments to new locations.
  • Landforms created by erosion include river valleys, oxbow lakes, waterfalls, sinkholes, and caves.

Landforms Created by Erosion

  • Inselbergs: isolated hills or mountains formed by wind erosion in deserts and plains.
  • Mushroom rock: tall, isolated hills with a mushroom-like shape, formed by wind erosion.
  • Pediplain: a plain area formed by wind erosion in desert regions.
  • Valleys: narrow structures formed by water flowing through mountains.
  • Canyons: deep valleys formed by the cutting down of rocks by flowing rivers.
  • Waterfalls: formed when stream water flows from softer rocks to complex and compact rocks.
  • Ox-bow lakes: created by water erosion, forming an abandoned meander loop.
  • Ripple marks: wavy structures formed by water flowing over soft rocks.
  • Sea cliff: a cliff formed by continuous hitting of sea waves near coastal areas.
  • Sea arch: an arch-like structure formed by powerful waves near coastal areas.
  • Sea stacks: pillar-like structures formed by the breakdown of headlands.


  • Deposition is the process of settling and accumulating broken rock fragments or soil particles in a new environment.
  • The same transporting agents that create erosional features also create depositional landforms.

Landforms Created by Deposition

  • Sand dunes: formed by wind deposition in desert regions.
  • Loess: formed by the deposition of silt, sand, and clay-sized particles by wind and water.
  • Alluvial fan: a fan-shaped area formed by the deposition of unconsolidated materials by a flowing stream or river.
  • Floodplains: areas adjacent to a down-flowing river, formed by overflow and deposition of materials.
  • Deltas: large, extensive wetland areas formed by the deposition of sediments at the mouth of a river.
  • Beaches: formed by the deposition of sands and gravel-like particles along shorelines.### Deltas
  • Large and extensive wetland areas formed where a flowing river or stream deposits sediments before flowing into the seas and oceans
  • Also known as the mouth of a river


  • Landforms formed parallel to the seas and oceans
  • Waves deposit sands, gravel-like particles along the shoreline, giving rise to a beach's landform

Glacial Depositional Landforms


  • Unconsolidated, loose accumulated materials formed when a thick mass of glacier moves over a region
  • Comprised of rocks and soils
  • Types of moraines include:
    • Lateral moraine
    • Terminal moraine
    • Medial moraine


  • Ridge-like structures comprised of sand and gravel size particles
  • Formed when moving glaciers carry particles to a low-lying area, melting and leaving accumulated materials


  • Structures formed when moving glaciers recede, resulting in a mass of accumulated sediments as they flow down

Test your knowledge on the erosional landforms created by wind and water in a shallow marine environment, primarily found in sandstone sedimentary rock. Identify and understand the formation of sea cliffs and sea arches along the coastal areas.

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