Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate: Craniofacial Malformations Quiz

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52 Questions

Which vitamin deficiency can lead to elevated homocysteine levels and a macrocytic anemia?

Folate – Vitamin B9

Which vitamin is specifically known to cause neurological symptoms like tingling in the hands and feet when deficient?

Cobalamine – Vitamin B12

Which vitamin is involved in the folate cycle and is needed for nucleic acid synthesis, resulting in a macrocytic anemia?

Cobalamine – Vitamin B12

Based on the information provided, what is the most likely reason for a lack of Purines and pyrimidine leading to macrocytic anemia?

Cobalamine – Vitamin B12 deficiency

What is a characteristic of Vitamin K according to the text?

Plays an essential role in preventing thrombosis.

How does Vitamin K affect coagulation time in newborn infants with hemorrhagic disease?

Decreases coagulation time.

Where is Vitamin K primarily synthesized according to the text?

Intestinal bacteria

Which statement about Vitamin K is FALSE based on the information provided?

It is present in high concentration in cow or breast milk.

Which vitamin deficiency is associated with symptoms like fatigue, depression, confusion, and soreness of tongue and mouth?

Vitamin B12 - Cobalamine

Which vitamin is known to have an active form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP)?

Vitamin B9 - Folate

Which vitamin deficiency results in symptoms that progress to sunburn-like lesions in areas exposed to sunlight?

Vitamin B3 - Niacin

Which group of minerals includes inorganic elements like calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium?

Macrominerals needed >100 mg/day

During embryonic development, when do the lip and palate typically close?

Week 8

What is the primary cause of cleft lip or cleft palate according to the text?

Complex multifactorial genetics & environmental causes

Which water-soluble vitamin is mentioned in the text to have a risk-reducing effect on nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate?

Vitamin B9: Folic Acid

What is the significance of Vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, and B7 mentioned in the text?

Energy releasing vitamins

Which vitamin is a co-enzyme for several multienzyme complexes and can lead to a disease called Wernicke's encephalopathy when deficient?

Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)

Which vitamin is a component of flavin coenzymes, acts as an electron carrier, and can cause glossitis or magenta tongue when deficient?

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Which vitamin is involved in carboxylation in lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, catabolism of amino acids, and can lead to dermatitis and glossitis when deficient?

Vitamin B7 (Biotin)

Which vitamin is an electron carrier involved in reactions and can cause pellagra with symptoms like mental confusion and ataxia when deficient?

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Which vitamin is required for transamination reactions, acts as an antioxidant, and can cause scurvy when deficient?

Vitamin C

Which vitamin is a co-factor for hydroxylation reactions and can lead to symptoms like weakening of connective tissue and delayed wound healing when deficient?

Vitamin C

What is a potential consequence of Vitamin K deficiency in newborns as mentioned in the text?

Delayed wound healing

Which statement accurately describes Vitamin K synthesis according to the text?

Synthesized by intestinal bacteria

Why is it necessary to give newborns a Vitamin K intramuscular injection, as recommended by NICE?

To prevent Vitamin K deficiency bleeding

Which vitamin mentioned in the text is essential for nucleic acid synthesis and can lead to a macrocytic anemia when deficient?

Vitamin B12

What role does Vitamin K play in coagulation time, particularly in newborn infants with hemorrhagic disease?

Shortens coagulation time

Which mineral category is discussed in the text as Major minerals?

Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium

What is the primary cause of nonsyndromic cleft lip or cleft palate according to the text?

Multifactorial genetics

Which vitamin mentioned in the text is NOT associated with a risk-reducing effect on nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate?

Vitamin B12

What percentage risk reduction is associated with periconceptional intake of folic acid supplements for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate?

47%

When do the lip and palate typically close during embryonic development?

Week 8

Which group of vitamins mentioned in the text is specifically related to energy release?

$B1: Thiamin, B2: Riboflavin, B3: Niacin$

Which vitamin is involved in nucleic acid synthesis and is needed for the folate cycle, leading to a macrocytic anemia when deficient?

$Vitamin B12$

Which vitamin deficiency can lead to both elevated homocysteine levels and macrocytic anemia, along with neurological symptoms like tingling in the hands and feet?

Folate – Vitamin B9

Which vitamin is critical for nucleic acid synthesis, especially in the folate cycle, and when deficient can result in macrocytic anemia and elevated homocysteine levels?

Cobalamine – Vitamin B12

Which vitamin is NOT directly linked to the symptoms of macrocytic anemia, elevated homocysteine levels, and neurological symptoms such as tingling in the hands and feet?

Thiamine - Vitamin B1

Among the options listed, which vitamin is most commonly associated with symptoms like fatigue, depression, confusion, and soreness of the tongue and mouth?

Thiamine - Vitamin B1

Which vitamin is crucial for normal nerve function and deficiency can result in paresthesia, anemia, and neurological complications?

Cobalamine – Vitamin B12

Among the given vitamins, which one is most closely associated with the prevention of cleft palate?

Folate – Vitamin B9

Which vitamin deficiency can result in a symptom that causes loss of eye coordination and lesions on the margin of the lips and corners of the mouth?

Vitamin B3

Which vitamin is an important component of Co-enzyme A and can cause symptoms like dermatitis, glossitis, and loss of appetite when deficient?

Vitamin B5

Which vitamin, commonly known for its role as an antioxidant, is involved in transamination reactions and can cause symptoms like scurvy when deficient?

Vitamin C

Which vitamin listed is uncommonly deficient due to its storage in muscles and has no established Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)?

Vitamin B1

Which vitamin deficiency could be characterized by symptoms like fatigue, depression, irritability, numbness, confusion, and soreness of the tongue and mouth?

Vitamin B7

A patient presenting symptoms like severe sunburn-like dermatitis due to malnutrition may be deficient in which vitamin?

Vitamin C

Which vitamin deficiency can lead to pellagra, characterized by symptoms like dermatitis progressing to sunburn-like lesions, diarrhea, and dementia?

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Which vitamin acts as an electron carrier in reactions and can cause glossitis, a condition characterized by inflammation of the tongue?

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine)

Which vitamin is required for nucleic acid synthesis in the folate cycle, leading to symptoms such as macrocytic anemia?

Vitamin B9 (Folate)

Which water-soluble vitamin is associated with symptoms like fatigue, depression, irritability, and confusion when deficient?

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamine)

Which vitamin is known for being involved in carboxylation reactions in lipogenesis and can result in symptoms like glossitis and dermatitis when deficient?

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

Which vitamin serves as a co-enzyme for several multienzyme complexes and its deficiency can lead to a condition known as Wernicke's encephalopathy?

Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)

Study Notes

Vitamin Deficiencies and Associated Symptoms

  • Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to elevated homocysteine levels and macrocytic anemia, as well as neurological symptoms like tingling in the hands and feet.
  • Vitamin B12 is specifically involved in the folate cycle and is needed for nucleic acid synthesis, resulting in macrocytic anemia when deficient.
  • Vitamin B6 deficiency is associated with symptoms like fatigue, depression, confusion, and soreness of tongue and mouth.
  • Vitamin B3 deficiency can result in symptoms that progress to sunburn-like lesions in areas exposed to sunlight.
  • Vitamin B2 deficiency can cause glossitis or magenta tongue when deficient.
  • Vitamin B1 deficiency can lead to a disease called Wernicke's encephalopathy when deficient.
  • Vitamin B5 deficiency can lead to symptoms like dermatitis and glossitis when deficient.
  • Vitamin B7 deficiency can lead to symptoms like dermatitis and glossitis when deficient.
  • Vitamin B9 deficiency can lead to a macrocytic anemia when deficient.

Vitamin K and Coagulation

  • Vitamin K is involved in the synthesis of clotting factors and is necessary for blood coagulation.
  • Vitamin K deficiency can lead to hemorrhagic disease in newborns.
  • Vitamin K is primarily synthesized in the gut by bacteria.
  • Newborns are given a Vitamin K intramuscular injection to prevent hemorrhagic disease.

Minerals and Embryonic Development

  • Major minerals include calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium.
  • The lip and palate typically close during embryonic development between the 6th and 12th week.
  • The primary cause of cleft lip or cleft palate is a deficiency in folic acid during embryonic development.
  • Folic acid supplements have a risk-reducing effect on nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate.

Vitamin Functions and Deficiencies

  • Vitamin B1 (Thiamin) is a co-enzyme for several multienzyme complexes and can lead to a disease called Wernicke's encephalopathy when deficient.
  • Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) is a component of flavin coenzymes, acts as an electron carrier, and can cause glossitis or magenta tongue when deficient.
  • Vitamin B3 (Niacin) is involved in carboxylation in lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, catabolism of amino acids, and can lead to dermatitis and glossitis when deficient.
  • Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid) is involved in carboxylation reactions in lipogenesis and can result in symptoms like glossitis and dermatitis when deficient.
  • Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) is required for transamination reactions, acts as an antioxidant, and can cause scurvy when deficient.
  • Vitamin B7 (Biotin) is a co-factor for hydroxylation reactions and can lead to symptoms like weakening of connective tissue and delayed wound healing when deficient.
  • Vitamin C is an electron carrier involved in reactions and can cause scurvy when deficient.
  • Vitamin B9 (Folic acid) is essential for nucleic acid synthesis and can lead to a macrocytic anemia when deficient.

Test your knowledge on cleft lip and cleft palate, which are craniofacial malformations resulting from perturbations in the growth and fusion of facial tissues. Explore the genetic and environmental causes, the timing of lip and palate closure during embryonic development, and the role of folic acid supplements in reducing risks. References to relevant studies included.

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