Chapter 1 Exogenetic Processes And Resultant Landforms Quiz

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10 Questions

What are primary landforms mainly formed by?

Endogenetic forces

Which natural agent is highlighted as the most significant in modifying Earth's surface?


What is the primary aim of gradation on Earth's surface?

Leveling of the Earth's undulated surface

Which energy source other than gravitation contributes significantly to the formation of secondary landforms?

Solar energy

What is the primary role of rivers in shaping landforms?

Aggradation and degradation

What is the process of levelling up to a certain limit known as?

Base level of erosion

Which process involves filling up of lowlands through deposition by agents of gradation?


What landforms are the result of aggradation?

Delta, sandbars, and floodplains

What is the main aim of degradation by the agents of gradation?

Lowering the height of landforms

What does a river basin refer to?

An area drained by a river, its tributaries, and distributaries

Study Notes

Exogenetic Processes and Landforms

  • Landforms are of two types: primary landforms formed by earth movement and tectonic movement (endogenetic forces), and secondary landforms modified by exogenetic forces.
  • Exogenetic processes include natural agents of gradation like rivers, glaciers, wind, sea waves, and groundwater, which continually modify the earth's surface.
  • These processes can be identified by small and minute sculpturing on primary landforms.


  • Gradation is the levelling of the undulated surface of the earth, aiming to reach a certain limit known as the Base level of erosion.
  • Gradation includes two processes: Aggradation and Degradation.


  • Aggradation is the filling up of lowlands through the deposition of sand, silts, and pebbles by agents of gradation.
  • Features of aggregation include deltas, sandbars, and floodplains.
  • Example: The Ganga Delta is the result of aggradation by the river Ganga.


  • Degradation is the lowering of the earth's surface by agents of gradation like weathering, mass wasting, river, and glaciers.
  • Lowering the height of a landform is the main aim of degradation.
  • Example: The transformation of lofty mountains through Residual mountains, erosional plateau, and ultimately into erosional plains or peneplains.

The Role of Rivers in Shaping Landforms

  • Rivers play an important role as agents of gradation on primary landforms.
  • Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle, which involves evaporation, condensation, and precipitation.
  • River basins are areas drained by a river, its tributaries, and distributaries, with the river playing a more important role in larger basins.

River Basins and Interfluves

  • A river basin is usually delimited by a water divide.
  • Example: The river Ganga basin is delimited by the Himalayas in the north and the Vindhya-Satpura-Maikal-Kaimur range in the south.
  • An interfluve is a narrow, elongated, and plateau-like landform between two river valleys.

Test your knowledge on exogenetic processes and resultant landforms. Explore how landforms are influenced by earth movement and tectonic forces. This quiz covers concepts of primary landforms like mountains, plateaus, and plains.

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