Cellular Macromolecules: Carbohydrates

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32 Questions

Which macromolecule serves as an energy source or has structural roles?

Carbohydrates

What is the basic structure of membranes and has roles in energy metabolism?

Lipids

Which type of carbohydrates consists of more than two sugar units covalently linked?

Polysaccharides

What is a long, unbranched hydrocarbon with a COOH group at one end?

Fatty Acids

Which type of fatty acids are solids at room temperature and derived from animal sources?

Saturated

What type of lipids have a backbone of four carbon rings and include cholesterol?

Steroids

What is the most abundant lipid in the body and produces twice the energy gain from carbohydrates?

Neutral Fats (triglycerides)

Which compound is an important component of cell membranes and has a glycerol backbone, two fatty acids, a phosphate group, and a small hydrophilic group?

Phospholipids

What group of molecules consists of amino acids linked together with peptide bonds in a polypeptide chain?

Proteins

Which protein structure is described as a complex three-dimensional shape resulting from interactions among R groups?

Tertiary structure

What process involves the disruption of the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure of proteins, leading to changes in their physiochemical properties?

Protein denaturation

Which molecule acts as energy currency in the body and is converted from chemical bond energy into ATP?

Adenosine phosphates (cAMP)

What are polymers of nucleotides?

Nucleic acids

What type of lipids have a backbone of four carbon rings and include cholesterol?

Steroids

What is the most abundant lipid in the body and produces twice energy gain from carbohydrates?

Neutral Fats (triglycerides)

What are the building blocks of proteins?

Amino Acids

Describe the structure of mitochondria and state its function.

The mitochondrion contains an outer and an inner membrane separated by the intermembrane space. The inner membrane is specialized and impermeable to most small ions. Its function is to produce energy in the form of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation.

Illustrate oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport chain.

Oxidative phosphorylation is the metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce ATP. The electron transport chain is a series of protein complexes and other molecules that transfer electrons from electron donors to electron acceptors.

Describe the structure of centrosome and state its function.

The centrosome consists of two centrioles and acts as the main microtubule organizing center in animal cells. Its function is to organize the microtubules of the cytoskeleton during cell division.

Describe the structure of centriole and state its function.

A centriole is a cylindrical cell structure composed mainly of a protein called tubulin. Its function is to organize the microtubules of the cytoskeleton during cell division.

Describe the structure of cytoskeleton and state its function.

The cytoskeleton is a network of protein filaments that extends throughout the cytoplasm. It provides structural support, facilitates cell movement, and plays a role in intracellular transport.

Describe the structure of vacuole and state its function.

A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle found in the cytoplasm of plant cells. Its function includes storage of nutrients and waste products, maintaining turgor pressure, and providing structural support.

What is the function of the cristae in the mitochondria?

Increase the surface area of the inner membrane

What is the composition of the mitochondrial matrix?

Proteins, enzymes, NAD, FAD, ADP, P, mtDNA, mtRNA, and ribosomes

How is ATP produced in the mitochondria?

Through the process of oxidative phosphorylation

What is the role of mtDNA in the mitochondria?

Production of RNA and some mitochondrial proteins

What is the estimated percentage of mtDNA in total cellular DNA?

Approximately 1%

How do mitochondria replicate or divide?

Through fission

What is the proposed origin of mitochondria?

Believed to have arisen from bacteria that were engulfed by ancestral eukaryotic cells

What is the significance of intact mitochondria for cell survival?

Survival of eukaryotic cells depends on intact mitochondria

What is the yield of ATP per glucose molecule in human red blood cells?

2 ATP molecules

What is the yield of ATP per glucose molecule in human cells with mitochondria?

About 32 ATP

This quiz covers the basics of carbohydrates, including their composition, monomers, polymers, and forms such as monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. It also discusses their roles as an energy source and in providing structural support.

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