Cellular Adaptation and Tissue Regeneration Quiz

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32 Questions

Which type of stem cells are found in the inner cell mass of blastocysts in early embryonic development?

Embryonic stem (ES) cells

What is one potential application of stem cell research mentioned in the text?

To produce knockout mice for studying gene biology

Which process involves reprogramming differentiated cells of adult tissues to become pluripotent?

Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) formation

What is the term for an increase in the size of existing cells accompanied by an increase in their functional capacity?

Hypertrophy

What is the main difference between hyperplasia and hypertrophy?

Hyperplasia involves an increase in cell number, while hypertrophy involves an increase in cell size.

What is a common cause of atrophy?

Loss of innervation

Which pathway is responsible for physiological hypertrophy?

IGF1 → PI3K → Akt

What are terminally differentiated cells?

Cells incapable of replication

What contributes to tissue repair after injury?

Scar formation and fibrosis

What defines pluripotent stem cells?

They can generate all tissues of the body

Which cellular response is a form of adaptive response?

Atrophy

What factor determines the relative contribution of regeneration and scarring in tissue repair?

The ability of the tissue to regenerate

How do cells respond to reduced supply of nutrients and growth factors?

Atrophy

What causes physiological atrophy during normal foetal development?

Restriction to bed rest

Which process leads to a controlled increase in cell number in an organ or tissue?

Hyperplasia

What is the primary characteristic of stem cells?

Ability to generate differentiated cell lineages

Embryonic stem cells can only differentiate into one specific cell type.

False

Adult stem cells are only found in bone marrow.

False

Induced pluripotent stem cells are generated by transferring the nucleus of a differentiated cell to an enucleated oocyte.

True

Hypertrophy refers to a decrease in the size of cells accompanied by a decrease in their functional capacity.

False

Hypertrophy results in a decrease in the size of cells

False

Hyperplasia and hypertrophy cannot coexist in the same organ or tissue

False

Atrophy is always a pathological process, never physiological

False

Atrophy can be caused by increased workload and specific hormonal stimulation

False

Cellular adaptations include metaplasia, which is a change from one cell type to another

True

Stem cells only exist in the early stages of embryonic development

False

Terminally differentiated cells are capable of replication

False

Repair after injury always consists of regeneration without any scar formation

False

The main characteristic of stem cells is their inability to self-renew

False

Cells respond to increased demand by atrophy

False

Healing responses after injury depend solely on the extent of the injury

False

Physiological hypertrophy is induced by Ang II and ET-1 signaling pathways

False

Study Notes

  • Cellular adaptation and tissue regeneration: process of cellular response to external stimuli and healing after injury
  • Cellular adaptations:
    • Hyperplasia: increase in number of cells, can be physiological or pathological, mechanisms include growth factor production and activation of intracellular signaling pathways
    • Hypertrophy: increase in size of cells, can be physiological or pathological, mechanisms include production of cellular proteins and hormonal stimulation
    • Metaplasia: cells change from one type to another
    • Numerous molecular mechanisms for cellular adaptations
  • Healing responses after injury:
    • Repair most often consists of regeneration and scar formation
    • Relative contribution of regeneration and scarring depends on ability of tissue to regenerate and extent of injury
    • Rate of cell proliferation, differentiation, death by apoptosis, and terminally differentiated cells determine size of cell populations in adult tissues
  • Role of stem cells:
    • Self-renewal properties and capacity to generate differentiated cell lineages
    • embryonic stem (ES) cells generate all tissues of the body, can differentiate into cells of multiple lineages
    • Adult (somatic) stem cells present in adult tissues, continuously divide, can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent (induced pluripotent stem cells or iPSC)
    • Stem cell research: study signals and differentiation steps, produce knockout mice, develop models of human disease, regenerate damaged organs.
  • Photomicrographs:
    • (a) and (b) show skeletal muscle in transverse section at same magnification, both normal
    • (b) shows common adaptive process, missing words: Hypertrophy is an increase in the size of existing cells accompanied by an increase in their functional capacity.

Test your knowledge on the overview of cellular adaptation, tissue regeneration, healing responses after injury, and the role of stem cells in the healing process. Learn about different forms of cellular adaptations to external stimuli.

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