Bystander Effect and Kitty Genovese Case

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What are the five steps proposed by Latane and Darley (1970) when deciding whether to render assistance?

Noticing, interpreting, assuming, knowing, deciding

According to Shotland and Huston (1979), what characterizes an emergency event?

Happening suddenly with a clear threat of harm to a victim

What effect did Milgram's urban overload hypothesis propose on people in high urban stimulation environments?

Overload resulting in tuning out emergency situations

Why may ambiguity make interpreting an event as an emergency difficult?

Ambiguity reduces the clarity of a threat or harm

What did Latane and Darley (1968) study regarding intervention in emergencies?

Effects of ambiguous events on intervention decisions

'Noticing' an event in the decision-making process refers to:

Awareness that an emergency is occurring

What is the term used to describe the phenomenon where an individual surrounded by a group of strangers hesitates and does nothing?

Pluralistic ignorance

According to Darley & Latane (1968), why are individuals less likely to assume responsibility when others are around in an emergency situation?

Diffusion of responsibility

In the decision-making process to provide help, what factor may inhibit a bystander from engaging in a helpful act?

Fears of potential negative consequences

Which scenario would most likely lead to a bystander being able to help someone in need?

A person slipping on ice

What concept involves assuming that someone in a leadership role must take responsibility in ambiguous situations?

Authority bias

What term describes the situation where responsibility is unclear, leading individuals to believe that others will take charge?

Diffusion of responsibility

What does the bystander effect suggest about the likelihood of receiving help in an emergency situation?

The more bystanders present, the lower the chances of receiving help.

What is diffusion of responsibility in the context of the bystander effect?

As the number of bystanders increases, each individual feels less responsible to help.

Why did Winston Moseley return to finish attacking Ms. Kitty Genovese despite being scared away temporarily?

He saw that nobody came out to help her.

In what situation are individuals more likely to receive help according to the text?

When surrounded by friends or known individuals.

How does diffusion of responsibility contribute to the bystander effect?

It decreases the feeling of personal responsibility to help in an emergency.

Which term is used to describe the belief that someone else will intervene and provide help in an emergency situation?

'Expectation of assistance'

Study Notes

Bystander Effect: Key Concepts

  • Latane and Darley (1970) proposed five steps to decide whether to render assistance in an emergency: noticing, interpreting, assuming responsibility, deciding to implement, and implementing the decision.

Characteristics of Emergency Events

  • According to Shotland and Huston (1979), an emergency event is characterized by a perceived danger, an unpredictable outcome, and a sense of urgency.

Urban Overload Hypothesis

  • Milgram's urban overload hypothesis proposes that people in high urban stimulation environments experience a reduced sense of responsibility, leading to a decreased likelihood of helping in an emergency.

Ambiguity in Emergency Situations

  • Ambiguity can make interpreting an event as an emergency difficult due to uncertainty about the severity or authenticity of the situation.

Intervention in Emergencies

  • Latane and Darley (1968) studied intervention in emergencies, focusing on the factors that influence an individual's decision to help or not help in an emergency situation.

Noticing and the Decision-Making Process

  • 'Noticing' an event is the first step in the decision-making process to provide help, involving the recognition of an emergency situation.

The Bystander Effect

  • The bystander effect refers to the phenomenon where an individual surrounded by a group of strangers hesitates and does nothing in an emergency situation.

Diffusion of Responsibility

  • Diffusion of responsibility occurs when individuals assume that others will take responsibility in an emergency situation, leading to a decreased sense of personal responsibility.
  • This concept involves assuming that someone in a leadership role must take responsibility in ambiguous situations.

Pluralistic Ignorance

  • Pluralistic ignorance is the situation where responsibility is unclear, leading individuals to believe that others will take charge.

Likelihood of Receiving Help

  • The bystander effect suggests that the likelihood of receiving help in an emergency situation decreases when there are many bystanders present.
  • Individuals are more likely to receive help in an emergency situation when they are alone or in a small group.

Diffusion of Responsibility and the Bystander Effect

  • Diffusion of responsibility contributes to the bystander effect by allowing individuals to shift responsibility to others, reducing the likelihood of helping in an emergency situation.

Kitty Genovese Case

  • Winston Moseley returned to finish attacking Kitty Genovese despite being scared away temporarily because he believed others would not intervene.

Helping in Emergency Situations

  • In situations where there is a clear assignment of responsibility, individuals are more likely to help in an emergency situation.

Belief in Others' Intervention

  • The bystander effect is influenced by the belief that someone else will intervene and provide help in an emergency situation.

Learn about the bystander effect, a social psychology phenomenon observed during the murder of Kitty Genovese. Explore how the likelihood of someone helping decreases as the number of bystanders increases.

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