Blood Osmosis and Ultra-Filtration Quiz

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21 Questions

What are the processes that control the transport of water and fluids between intravascular and extravascular spaces?

Osmosis and ultra-filtration

What controls the movement of substances across the blood vessels?

Hydrostatic pressure and colloid osmotic pressure

What constitutes about 6-10% of the body weight?

Blood cells and plasma

Which physiological factor increases blood volume?

Excessive sweating

Which pathological factor decreases blood volume?

Dehydration

What is the difference between ultrafiltration and osmosis?

The amount of tissue fluids that goes through the lymphatics

What is the main function of the regulation of the red cell volume during hemorrhage?

Contraction of the spleen to push blood into circulation

What is the primary function of the regulation of plasma volume by rapid mechanism?

Depend on the interchange of fluids between plasma, interstitial fluid, and intracellular fluid

What does an increased packed cell volume (PCV) indicate?

Dehydration and haemoconcentration

In which animals are the erythrocytes distinctly biconcave disks?

Cats and horses

What substance is impermeable to the cell membrane of erythrocytes?

Plasma protein

What is the main function of the plasticity of the cell membrane of erythrocytes?

Permits folding and twisting of the cell without rupture

Which animals have elliptical erythrocytes?

Camels

What does an increased packed cell volume (PCV) indicate?

Polycythemia, dehydration, and haemoconcentration

What is the measurement of the ratio of the volume occupied by the RBCs to the volume of the whole blood called?

Packed cell volume (PCV)

What is the main function of mast cells and basophils in the immediate response stage of the inflammatory process?

Releasing histamine and kinins to cause blood vessel dilation

What is the role of neutrophils in the inflammatory response?

Migrating to the site of infection and squeezing through blood vessel walls

What is the purpose of increased capillary permeability in the inflammatory response?

To wall off the infected area and prevent the spread of infection

What is the immediate response of macrophages to bacteria invasion?

Engulfing and destroying bacteria through phagocytosis

What is the effect of histamine release by mast cells and basophils in the inflammatory response?

Causing redness and heat in the infected area

What is the function of monocytes in the inflammatory response?

Migrating to the area and maturing into macrophages

Study Notes

Blood Vessels and Fluid Transport

  • The transport of water and fluids between intravascular and extravascular spaces is controlled by hydrostatic and oncotic pressures.
  • The movement of substances across blood vessels is controlled by diffusion, filtration, and reabsorption.

Blood Composition

  • Blood plasma and red blood cells constitute about 6-10% of the body weight.
  • Physiological factors that increase blood volume include increased aldosterone secretion and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion.
  • Pathological factors that decrease blood volume include hemorrhage and dehydration.

Osmosis and Ultrafiltration

  • Ultrafiltration is the filtration of plasma through the capillary wall, driven by hydrostatic pressure.
  • Osmosis is the movement of water from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration through a selectively permeable membrane.

Regulation of Red Blood Cell Volume

  • The main function of regulating red cell volume during hemorrhage is to maintain blood viscosity and prevent circulatory shock.
  • The primary function of regulating plasma volume by rapid mechanisms is to maintain blood pressure and prevent hypovolemic shock.

Erythrocyte Characteristics

  • Erythrocytes are biconcave disks in humans and some other animals.
  • In camelids, erythrocytes are elliptical in shape.
  • Cholesterol is impermeable to the cell membrane of erythrocytes.
  • The plasticity of the cell membrane of erythrocytes allows them to change shape to fit through narrow capillaries.

Blood Cell Functions

  • An increased packed cell volume (PCV) indicates dehydration or polycythemia.
  • The PCV is the ratio of the volume occupied by the RBCs to the volume of the whole blood.
  • Mast cells and basophils release histamine, which increases capillary permeability and attracts neutrophils to the site of inflammation.
  • Neutrophils phagocytose bacteria and foreign particles during the inflammatory response.
  • Macrophages engulf and digest bacteria and foreign particles during the inflammatory response.
  • Monocytes mature into macrophages, which play a key role in the inflammatory response.

Test your knowledge about the processes controlling the transport of water and fluids between intravascular and extravascular spaces, including the roles of hydrostatic pressure, colloid osmotic pressure, and albumin. Explore the differences between ultrafiltration and osmosis in the context of tissue fluid movement.

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