Biopsych Chapter 18 part 2

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By BrilliantLobster



30 Questions

What is the hypothesized relationship between antidepressants and BDNF levels?

What are the effects of stress on neuroplastic processes?

What is the relationship between depression and neural pathology?

What is the role of Brain-Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) in depression?

What is the consistent change observed in the brain structures of individuals with depression?

What is the impact of effective treatment for depression on BDNF levels?

What is the relationship between antidepressants and neuroplastic processes?

Which brain structures show decreased volume and lower density in bipolar disorder?

What do fMRI studies reveal about brain activity in bipolar patients?

What do functional connectivity disturbances in bipolar disorder seem to center around?

What is a characteristic of anxiety attacks compared to panic attacks?

What do anxiety disorders include?

What drugs are used to treat anxiety disorders?

What are animal models of anxiety disorders used for?

What is the average onset age of bipolar disorder?

What are the characteristics of hypomania?

Which type of bipolar disorder involves hypomania and depression?

What are the symptoms of depressive episodes in bipolar disorder?

What is the Diathesis-Stress Model of bipolar disorder?

What are the treatment options for bipolar disorder?

What does the Reward Hypersensitivity of Bipolar Disorder suggest?

What is the purpose of using functional brain-imaging in anxiety disorders?

Why is the use of double-blind design in clinical trials considered controversial?

What is the purpose of using active placebos in clinical trials?

Why is the lack of diversity in experimental participants a concern in clinical trials?

What is the primary challenge in putting new experimental drugs into use during severe public health issues?

Why are most drugs limited in their therapeutic effects according to the text?

What is the concern related to the financial costs of drug development according to the text?

What is the impact of experimental drug side effects on the control group in clinical trials?

What is the focus of attention in the controversial aspects of clinical trials according to the text?


Understanding Bipolar Disorder

  • Bipolar disorder involves episodes of depression and mania/hypomania, affecting 3% of the global population with equal prevalence in men and women and an average onset age of 25 years.
  • Types of bipolar disorder include type 1 (mania, hypomania, and depression), type 2 (hypomania and depression), rapid cycling subtype, and cyclothymic disorder.
  • Hypomania is characterized by high energy, positive affect, reduced need for sleep, impulsivity, and increased confidence, while mania is a more extreme form of hypomania with additional symptoms like delusions of grandeur and risk-taking behavior.
  • Depressive symptoms in bipolar disorder include feelings of sadness, loss of interest in activities, changes in sleep pattern, and thoughts of death or suicidal ideation.
  • Mixed states, where symptoms of mania and depression coexist, occur in type 1 and are less responsive to medication, leading to a high suicide rate.
  • Risk factors for bipolar disorder include family history, location (more common in high-income countries), marriage status, stress, and substance abuse as triggers for the first episode.
  • Diagnosis involves physical exams, lab tests, psychiatric assessments, and mood-charting, with the possibility of changes in diagnosis over a lifetime.
  • Treatment options for bipolar disorder include medication (mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and antidepressants), therapy, and electroconvulsive therapy for treatment-resistant cases.
  • Bipolar disorder, formerly known as manic-depressive illness, causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, and concentration, and proper understanding of its mechanisms is limited due to the lack of clear understanding and adequate animal models.
  • The Reward Hypersensitivity of Bipolar Disorder suggests that dysfunctional brain reward systems overreact to rewards or the lack of, leading to risky choices and explaining manic and depressive phases.
  • The Diathesis-Stress Model proposes that stress interacts with biological instabilities to induce the illness in vulnerable individuals, with additional research linking lack of social support, family environment, lifestyle, and sleep irregularity to illness instigation and relapse.
  • In Canada, 2.2% of individuals experience bipolar disorder, with cognitive deficits and brain structure changes studied using MRI, showing strong links between gray matter volume reduction and clinical outcomes, as well as smaller brain structures in diagnosed individuals.


Test your knowledge of bipolar disorder with this informative quiz. Explore the types, symptoms, risk factors, and treatment options for bipolar disorder, as well as the latest research on its underlying mechanisms. Gain a deeper understanding of this complex mental health condition.

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