Binomial Nomenclature and Taxonomy Overview

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What is the two-part naming system used in binomial nomenclature?

Genus + Specific epithet

Who developed a system of taxonomy based on resemblances in the 18th century?

Linnaeus

What is the correct order of taxonomic groups from broad to narrow?

Domain —> Kingdom —> Phylum —> Class

What is a taxon?

A taxonomic unit at any level of hierarchy

What does a phylogenetic tree represent?

The evolutionary history of a species or group of related species

What does a branch point (node) in a phylogenetic tree represent?

Divergence of two species from a common ancestor

What does a rooted tree in phylogenetics include?

A branch to represent the last common ancestor of ALL taxa in that tree

What does a polytomy in a phylogenetic tree indicate?

A branch from which more than two groups emerge

What type of group consists of all the descendants of a single common ancestor?

Monophyletic group

What does it mean if taxa are rotated around nodes and still depict the same relationships?

The tree's structure remains unchanged

What does a polyphyletic group consist of?

Descendants with diverse evolutionary origins

What information can phylogenetic trees NOT provide?

Timing of species evolution

What can phylogenetic trees indicate?

Patterens of descent

What should not be assumed about taxa on a phylogenetic tree?

They evolved from the taxon next to it

What are characters in the context of making a phylogeny?

Specific traits possessed by an organism

The tree with the fewest number of events is considered the best tree in phylogenetics?

True

Parsimony in phylogenetics refers to having the fewest number of evolutionary steps?

True

A polyphyletic group consists of all the descendants of a single common ancestor?

False

What does phylogenetic bracketing allow us to do?

Predict features of an ancestor from features of its descendants

What are the best hypotheses for phylogenetic trees based on?

Morphological, molecular, and fossil data

What did early taxonomists classify all species into?

Two kingdoms: plants and animals

What were the later recognized Five kingdoms by taxonomists?

Monera (prokaryotes), Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia

Which of the following is NOT one of the three domains in the three-domain system?

Protista

In the three-domain system, which domain is more closely related to Eukarya than to Bacteria?

Archaea

What type of data has supported the adoption of the three-domain system?

Data from sequenced genomes

What system was adopted 'More recently' than the existing two-kingdom classification?

Three-domain system

What are the two key features of Linnaeus' system of taxonomy that remain useful today?

Binomial nomenclature and hierarchical classification

What is the significance of the taxonomic groups from broad to narrow in the hierarchical classification system?

They represent increasingly inclusive categories

What is the relationship between phylogeny and systematics?

Systematics classifies organisms and determines their evolutionary relationships based on phylogeny

What does a phylogenetic tree represent?

A hypothesis about evolutionary relationships

What do sister taxa share in terms of evolutionary relationships?

They share an immediate common ancestor not shared by any other group

What is the purpose of depicting evolutionary relationships in branching phylogenetic trees?

To infer the evolutionary relationships among species

What is the significance of a polytomy in a phylogenetic tree?

A polytomy indicates a branch where more than two groups emerge, which makes the evolutionary history unclear.

Explain the concept of parsimony in phylogenetics.

Parsimony refers to the principle of selecting the phylogenetic tree with the fewest number of evolutionary steps.

What does phylogenetic bracketing allow us to predict?

Phylogenetic bracketing allows us to predict features of an ancestor from features of its descendants.

What are the characteristics of characters in the context of making a phylogeny?

Characters are specific traits possessed by an organism, which can have different stages or variations.

What does a rooted tree in phylogenetics include?

A rooted tree includes a branch to represent the last common ancestor of all taxa in that tree.

Explain the relationship between Eukarya, Archaea, and Bacteria in the three-domain system.

Eukaryotes and Archaea are more closely related to each other than to Bacteria.

What is the difference between a monophyletic group and a paraphyletic group?

A monophyletic group consists of all the descendants of a single common ancestor, while a paraphyletic group consists of some, but not all descendants of a single common ancestor.

What information can phylogenetic trees provide?

Phylogenetic trees can show patterns of descent and relationships among taxa.

What does it mean if taxa are rotated around nodes and still depict the same relationships?

Rotating taxa around nodes does not change the relationships depicted in the phylogenetic tree.

What are the best hypotheses for phylogenetic trees based on?

The best hypotheses for phylogenetic trees fit the most data, including morphological, molecular, and fossil evidence.

Topic 1 (part 2)

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