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Bacteria and Nitrogen Fixation Quiz

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24 Questions

Match the following bacteria with their primary function:

Azospirilium = Forms a symbiotic relationship with sugarcane and tropical grass Rhizobium = Provides nitrogen to legumes like alfalfa Nitrobacter = Converts ammonia (NH3) into nitrites (NO2) Nitrosomonas = Breaks down nitrites (NO2) into nitrates (NO3)

Match the following pathogens with their associated diseases:

Bartonella = Causes cat scratch fever Rickettsia = Causes Rocky Mountain fever Wolbachia = Affects egg development and causes Zika virus Brucella = Causes zoonotic infections and spontaneous abortions in ungulates

Match the following bacteria with their habitat or source:

Thiobacillus = Recycles sulfur using hydrogen, found in soil and used by miners with leach pads Zoogleal = Found in sewage, forms flock and sink Sphacontus = Found in sewage, forms flock and float Bordetella = Aerobic bacteria that is very fastidious

Match the following bacteria with their characteristics:

Agrobacterium = Causes tree tumors B.cepacia = Uses 100 different organic molecules for energy, infects medical equipment and drugs Burkholderia = Formerly classified in gamma group, now known for its versatility in using organic molecules for energy Brucella abortus = Causes spontaneous abortions in ungulates, monitored in herds in Yellowstone

Match the following human pathogens with their associated diseases:

N. gonorrhea = Second most common STD/STI N. meningitis = Causes meningitis Legionella = Difficult to grow, found in water sources Pertussis = Causes whooping cough

Match the following bacteria with their primary habitat:

Purple sulfur bacteria = Found in hot springs and similar environments Neisseria Fimbriae = Attach to mucus membranes Legionella = In water, streams, AC units, hot tubs Gamma bacteria = Largest and diverse group of bacteria

Match the following bacteria with their oxygen requirements:

Purple sulfur bacteria = Obligate anaerobes, do not need oxygen Neisseria Fimbriae = Use hydrogen sulfide for metabolism Legionella = Facultative intracellular parasites N. meningitis = Attacks the meninges and spinal cord

Match the following terms with their descriptions:

PID (pelvic inflammatory) = Can be caused by untreated Conjunctiva infection Ribosomal studies = Differentiate between serovars of bacteria Intracellular pathogens = Reproduce inside/outside host cells Stick neck/coma/fever = Symptoms of N. meningitis infection

Match the following bacteria with their characteristics:

N. gonorrhea = Infects mucus of urogenital areas (oral/anal) Pertussis = Can be passed from mothers to babies at birth if untreated Gamma bacteria = Most diverse group in terms of shapes, sizes, and metabolic pathways Legionella = Thrives in AC units and hot tubs

Match the following diseases with their respective characteristics:

Bubonic plague = Causes golf ball sized lymph nodes Septicemia plague = Results in blood pooling in skin and organs, giving a black appearance Pneumonic plague = Most contagious form spread from human to human via droplets Cronobacter = Pathogen causing meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis in infants

Match the following bacteria with their associated infections:

Serratia marcescens = Infections from respiratory equipment and poor catheter care Proteus P. vulgaris and P. mirabilis = Commonly found but not the most common to infect Vibrio cholerae = Causes cholera by producing enterotoxins in the intestines resulting in rice water stool Haemophilus influenzae = Causes earaches, bronchitis, and pneumonia in small kids

Match the following bacterial groups with their characteristics:

Pasteurellaes = Pathogens in domestic animals belonging to the Haemophiles group Pseudomonadales = Break down 80 different organic compounds and are opportunistic pathogens Vibrionales = Found in aquatic habitats; V. cholerae causes severe dehydration through diarrhea Pseudomonas aeruginosa = Major cause of nosocomial infections, especially in burn and wound patients

Match the following bacteria with their associated diseases:

C.jejuni = Food poisoning C.fetus = Spontaneous abortion in domestic animals C.tetani = Tetanus C.botulinum = Botulism

Match the following bacteria with their characteristics:

H.pylori = Causes stomach ulcers/stomach cancer Clostridium = Produce endospores and toxins C.difficile = Causes ... Green sulfur bacteria and green non-sulfur bacteria = Do not provide O2, use H2S instead of H2O

Match the following bacteria classification with their characteristics:

Firmicutes = Low G-C ratio, most are soil organisms Actinobacteria = High G-C ratio, classified by DNA composition Gram-negative Cyanobacteria = ... Non-proteobacteria Gram-positive bacteria = ...

Match the following bacteria toxins with their effects:

Neurotoxins from C.tetani = Cause painful muscle spasms Neurotoxins from C.botulinum = Block nerve functions, cause paralysis Cytotoxins from C.perfringens = ... ... = ...

Match the following bacteria products with their uses:

Endospores from Clostridium = ... Neurotoxins purified for botox and migraines = ... Gas emissions from C.perfringens = ... ... = ...

Match the following bacteria environmental adaptations with their characteristics:

Heterocyst in Cyanobacteria = ... Green sulfur bacteria and green non-sulfur bacteria = ... ... = ...

Match the following pathogens with their associated diseases:

Listeria monocytogenes = Listeriosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis = Tuberculosis Mycoplasma pneumoniae = Walking pneumonia Chlamydia trachomatis = Chlamydia

Match the following bacteria with their characteristics:

Actinobacteria = Common source of antibiotics Spirochetes = Spiral with axial filaments Mycoplasma = No cell wall Mycobacterium = Waxy walls, acid-fast, very slow growing

Match the Streptomyces species with the antibiotics they produce:

S. aurofaciens = Chlortetracycline S. rimosis = Tetracycline S. griseus = Streptomycin S. erythraeus = Erythromycin

Match the following symptoms with the respective diseases caused by bacteria:

Bullseye rash, Fever, Joint pain, Neuro issues = Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease) Disfiguring, Circulatory problems, Nerve damage = Mycobacterium leprae (Leprosy) Tubercules of connective tissue surround bacteria (white death) = Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) Trachoma in newborns (blindness), Gonococcal urethritis = Chlamydia trachomatis

Match the following bacterial species with their primary impact on pregnant women:

Listeria monocytogenes = Very serious to pregnant woman Mycoplasma hominis = Urogenital infections and complications of pregnancy Chlamydia trachomatis = Trachoma in newborns (blindness) Mycobacterium leprae = Causes disfiguring, circulatory problems, nerve damage

Match the bacteria with their preferred environmental conditions:

Spirochetes = Move like drill, free living, water environments, various O2 requirements Actinobacteria = Obligate aerobes - facultative anaerobes, Capable of nitrogen fixation, Fresh dirt smell Mycoplasma pneumoniae = Pleomorphic like a fried egg Mycobacterium tuberculosis = (TB) Very slow growing, Waxy walls, acid-fast

Study Notes

Neisseria

  • Fimbriae attach to mucus membranes
  • Two human pathogens: N. gonorrhea and N. meningitis
  • N. gonorrhea: 2nd most common STD/STI, infects mucus of urogenital (oral/anal) and conjunctiva, can cause PID (pelvic inflammatory)
  • N. meningitis: causes meningitis, attacks the meninges and spinal cord, symptoms include stick neck, coma, and fever

Gamma Proteobacteria

  • Largest and most diverse group
  • Shapes, sizes, and arrangements vary
  • Metabolic pathways vary
  • Human pathogens: Legionella, L. monocytogenes, and Mycoplasm

Legionella

  • Difficult to grow, found in water, streams, AC units, and hot tubs
  • Facilitative intracellular parasite, reproduces inside and outside host

Listeriosis

  • Food borne pathogen, very serious for pregnant women
  • Can't eat sushi, deli meat, or unpasteurized products
  • Babies can get listeria from mom in utero

Mycoplasm

  • No cell wall, DNA related to Gram +
  • Pleomorphic, like a fried egg
  • M. pneumoniae: walking pneumonia, causes arthritis in goats
  • M. hominis: urogenital infections and complications of pregnancy

Actinobacteria

  • High G-C Ratio
  • Common source of antibiotics
  • Obligate aerobes, facultative anaerobes
  • Capable of nitrogen fixation
  • Fresh dirt smell
  • Streptomyces: produces chlortetracycline, tetracycline, streptomyocin, and erythromycin

Mycobacterium

  • Waxy walls, acid fast, very slow growing
  • M. tuberculosis (TB): tubercules of connective tissue surround bacteria (white death)
  • M. leprae (leprosy – Hansen's disease): still around today, causes disfiguring, circulatory problems, and nerve damage, treatable

Miscellaneous

  • Chlamydia: obligate intracellular bacteria (STD), causes trachoma and pneumonia
  • Spirochetes: spiral with axial filaments, move like a drill, free living, water environments, various O2 requirements
  • Borrelia burgdorferi: causes Lyme disease, tick → deer → humans, symptoms: bullseye rash, fever, joint pain, and neuro issues
  • Treponema: Low nutrients, makes nitrogen for others, aerobes, unusual intracellular extensions (prostheca)
  • Azospirillum: Ag important, symbiotic relationship with sugarcane, tropic grass
  • Rhizobium: nitrogen to legumes, alfalfa (N2 → NH4), makes amino acids and proteins

Nitrogen Cycle

  • Nitrobacter: 1st step, converts ammonia (NH3) → nitrites (NO2)
  • Nitrosomonas: 2nd step, breaks down nitrites more (NO2) → nitrate (NO3)
  • Uses inorganic chemicals as energy source, CO2 only carbon source

Test your knowledge about bacteria involved in nitrogen fixation, such as Azospirillum, Rhizobium, Nitrobacter, and Nitrosomonas. Learn about their roles in converting nitrogen into forms usable by plants and other organisms.

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