Artificial Kidney Manufacturing and Coatings Quiz

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35 Questions

Which of the following forces drives the excretion of waste products and toxins in dialysis?

Filtration, diffusion, and osmosis

What is the principle that allows for a fluid loss on the blood side in dialysis?

Filtration, diffusion, and osmosis

What is the maximum transmembrane pressure (TMP) in hemodiafiltration?

300 mmHg

How many liters of dialysate are used per treatment in hemodiafiltration?

100-125 liters

In peritoneal dialysis, what is infused into the abdomen to excrete water from the patient?

Glucose

How many treatments per week are typically given to dialysis patients in Germany?

4-5 treatments

What is the main purpose of a membrane dialyzer in the context of dialysis?

To direct blood and dialysate through a selective membrane

What is the primary function of the pump in the context of dialysis?

To overcome pressure loss in the dialyzer

What is the role of cannulation in the context of dialysis?

To provide vascular access for regular use

What is the purpose of an adsorber in hemoperfusion in the context of dialysis techniques?

To filter toxic substances in the blood through adsorption

What is a potential advantage of peritoneal dialysis compared to other forms of dialysis?

No intervention in the circulatory system

Why must protein loss be compensated for by a special diet in peritoneal dialysis?

The peritoneum is permeable for proteins

What is a key design requirement for the membrane of an artificial kidney dialyzer?

Impermeable for proteins

What is the purpose of hollow fiber structure in the design of an artificial kidney dialyzer?

To facilitate high ultrafiltration rate

Why does peritoneal dialysis carry a risk of peritonitis?

Cannulation is an entry-port for pathogenic germs

What is the basic principle involved in convective filtering during dialysis?

Filtration

Which type of membrane is involved in the uniform distribution of molecules due to random Brownian molecular motion during dialysis?

Permeable membrane

What is the main principle behind osmotic pressure during dialysis?

Osmosis

Which component of the dialyzer is designed to hold back valuable substances during dialysis?

Membrane

What is the key feature of the dialyzer membrane that enables the separation of substances during dialysis?

Permeability

What is the maximum transmembrane pressure (TMP) mentioned in the exemplary membrane datasheet for the Fresenius dialyzer?

300 mmHg

Why is heparin commonly given by infusion instead of being used as a coating for blood contact surfaces?

Infusion provides a more controlled and consistent dosage of heparin

What is the primary problem associated with using arteries for vascular access in hemodialysis?

Arteries are deep embedded in tissue and superficial access is not possible

What surgical procedure connects the artery to the vein to create a solution for sufficient blood flow during hemodialysis?

Arteriovenous shunt

Why are veins considered more suitable than arteries for vascular access in hemodialysis despite not being able to provide sufficient blood flow?

Veins can be accessed more easily due to their location near the skin surface

What is the principle of a roller pump used in dialysis?

Volume-driven

Which pump is commonly used for anticoagulation in dialysis?

Heparin pump

What is the purpose of the arterial pressure in a dialysis machine?

To monitor the patient's arterial pressure

What is the function of the venous clamp in a dialysis setup?

To clamp off the venous line

Which type of pump induces rotating occlusion on a tube and is prone to some hemolysis?

Rotational pump

What is the main function of the degassing pump in a dialysis setup?

To remove air from the blood

What is the primary purpose of the arterial and venous temperature monitoring in a dialysis machine?

To ensure proper temperature balance during dialysis

Which type of pump is commonly used as a blood pump in dialysis?

Dialysate pump

What is the primary function of the syringe pump in a dialysis setup?

To deliver anticoagulants like heparin

What role does the bubble detector perform in a dialysis machine?

To detect air bubbles in the dialysate

Study Notes

Forces and Principles in Dialysis

  • Osmotic pressure drives the excretion of waste products and toxins in dialysis.
  • The principle of convective filtering allows for a fluid loss on the blood side in dialysis.

Hemodiafiltration

  • The maximum transmembrane pressure (TMP) in hemodiafiltration is 500 mmHg.
  • 30-60 liters of dialysate are used per treatment in hemodiafiltration.

Peritoneal Dialysis

  • Dialysate is infused into the abdomen to excrete water from the patient.
  • A potential advantage of peritoneal dialysis compared to other forms of dialysis is that it allows for more flexibility in daily life.
  • Protein loss must be compensated for by a special diet in peritoneal dialysis because the peritoneal membrane is permeable to proteins.

Dialysis Components

  • The main purpose of a membrane dialyzer is to filter waste products from the blood.
  • The primary function of the pump in dialysis is to create a pressure gradient to drive blood flow.
  • The role of cannulation in dialysis is to connect the patient to the dialysis machine.
  • The purpose of an adsorber in hemoperfusion is to remove toxins from the blood.

Dialyzer Design

  • A key design requirement for the membrane of an artificial kidney dialyzer is high permeability and selectivity.
  • The purpose of the hollow fiber structure in the design of an artificial kidney dialyzer is to provide a high surface area for diffusion.

Complications and Risks

  • Peritoneal dialysis carries a risk of peritonitis because the peritoneal membrane is permeable to bacteria.
  • Heparin is commonly given by infusion instead of being used as a coating for blood contact surfaces because it is more effective at preventing blood clotting.

Vascular Access

  • The primary problem associated with using arteries for vascular access in hemodialysis is that they are prone to stenosis.
  • A surgical procedure called arteriovenous fistula connects the artery to the vein to create a solution for sufficient blood flow during hemodialysis.
  • Veins are considered more suitable than arteries for vascular access in hemodialysis because they are more durable and less prone to stenosis.

Pumps and Monitoring

  • The principle of a roller pump used in dialysis is to create a rotating occlusion on a tube.
  • The syringe pump is commonly used for anticoagulation in dialysis.
  • The arterial pressure in a dialysis machine monitors the patient's blood pressure.
  • The venous clamp in a dialysis setup prevents backflow of blood.
  • The rotary pump induces rotating occlusion on a tube and is prone to some hemolysis.
  • The main function of the degassing pump in a dialysis setup is to remove air bubbles from the dialysate.
  • The primary purpose of the arterial and venous temperature monitoring in a dialysis machine is to prevent blood cooling.
  • The roller pump is commonly used as a blood pump in dialysis.
  • The primary function of the syringe pump in a dialysis setup is to deliver anticoagulants.
  • The bubble detector in a dialysis machine detects air bubbles in the blood.

Test your knowledge on the design and manufacturing process of artificial kidneys, including the use of heparin coatings and potting materials. Explore topics such as fiber bundle packing, blood inlet design, and materials used in dialyzer production.

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