Arteriosclerosis vs Atherosclerosis

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What is the main cause of ischemic necrosis in cells?

Deficient blood flow to the cells

Where are atherosclerotic lesions predominantly found?

In the abdominal aorta and coronary arteries

What is the main effect of nicotine in tobacco on blood flow?

Decreases blood flow to the extremities

How does carbon monoxide affect the tissues in the body?

It deprives the tissues of oxygen

What is the impact of diabetes on peripheral artery disease (PAD)?

It increases the overall risk of PAD

What is a sensitive marker of cardiovascular inflammation?

C-reactive protein (CRP)

What happens to fatty streaks over time?

They develop into fibrous plaques

What are the main components of fibrous plaques?

Collagen fibers, plasma components, and lipids

What is collateral circulation?

The rerouting of blood flow around an obstruction

What is the effect of cessation of nicotine product use on atherosclerosis risk?

Significant decrease in atherosclerosis risk

What has hyperhomocysteinemia been positively correlated with in some studies?

Peripheral, cerebrovascular, and coronary artery disease

How does homocysteine promote coagulation?

By increasing factor V and factor XI activity while depressing protein C activation and increasing the binding of lipoprotein(a) in fibrin

What has been reported to reduce serum homocysteine levels?

Folic acid and vitamin B12

What is the impact of using B complex vitamins to reduce cardiovascular disease in patients with PAD?

It is not recommended

What effect does homocysteine have on thrombin formation?

Increases thrombin formation

What does homocysteine do to the binding of lipoprotein(a) in fibrin?

Increases the binding of lipoprotein(a) in fibrin

What has folic acid and vitamin B12 been reported to reduce?

Serum homocysteine levels

What is the impact of reducing serum homocysteine levels using folic acid and vitamin B12 on adverse cardiovascular events?

It has no impact on adverse cardiovascular events

What impact do B complex vitamins have on reducing cardiovascular disease in patients with PAD?

Not recommended

What effect does homocysteine have on protein C activation?

Depresses protein C activation

What is the most common disease of the arteries?

Arteriosclerosis

Which process affects the intima of large and medium-sized arteries?

Atherosclerosis

What are the accumulations on the intimal layer of the artery referred to as?

Atheromas

What are the most common direct results of atherosclerosis in arteries?

Stenosis (narrowing) of the lumen

What are the indirect results of atherosclerosis in arteries?

Malnutrition and fibrosis

Which disease is described as a diffuse process whereby the muscle fibers and the endothelial lining of the walls of small arteries and arterioles become thickened?

Arteriosclerosis

Which disease involves the accumulation of lipids, calcium, blood components, carbohydrates, and fibrous tissue on the intimal layer of the artery?

Atherosclerosis

What is a generalized disease of the arteries, usually present elsewhere in the body when it is present in the extremities?

Atherosclerosis

What process involves malnutrition and subsequent fibrosis of organs that sclerotic arteries supply with blood?

Atheroscleorsis

What accumulations are referred to as plaques?

Plaques

What is the key difference between arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis?

Atherosclerosis affects the intima of large and medium-sized arteries, while arteriosclerosis affects the walls of small arteries and arterioles.

What are the main accumulations on the intimal layer of the artery referred to as?

Atheromas

Which disease is a generalized disease of the arteries, usually present elsewhere in the body when it is present in the extremities?

Atherosclerosis

What are the most common direct results of atherosclerosis in arteries?

Obstruction by thrombosis

What is the impact of reducing serum homocysteine levels using folic acid and vitamin B12 on adverse cardiovascular events?

It reduces adverse cardiovascular events

What has hyperhomocysteinemia been positively correlated with in some studies?

Increased risk of cardiovascular disease

What is collateral circulation?

The formation of new blood vessels in response to blocked arteries

What process involves malnutrition and subsequent fibrosis of organs that sclerotic arteries supply with blood?

Arteriosclerosis

What is the main cause of ischemic necrosis in cells?

Obstruction by thrombosis

What impact do B complex vitamins have on reducing cardiovascular disease in patients with PAD?

They reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease

What is the main cause of ischemic necrosis in cells?

Decreased oxygen levels

Where are atherosclerotic lesions predominantly found?

Coronary, popliteal, and internal carotid arteries

What process involves malnutrition and subsequent fibrosis of organs that sclerotic arteries supply with blood?

Diffuse process

What is the impact of cessation of nicotine product use on atherosclerosis risk?

Decreases the risk

What is a sensitive marker of cardiovascular inflammation?

C-reactive protein (CRP)

What does homocysteine do to the binding of lipoprotein(a) in fibrin?

Increases its binding

What has been reported to reduce serum homocysteine levels?

Folic acid and vitamin B12

What are the main components of fibrous plaques?

Smooth muscle cells, collagen fibers, plasma components, and lipids

What is collateral circulation?

Rerouting of blood flow around an obstruction in arteries

What is a generalized disease of the arteries, usually present elsewhere in the body when it is present in the extremities?

Atherosclerosis

What effect does carbon monoxide have on the tissues in the body?

Deprives the tissues of oxygen

What is the impact of using B complex vitamins to reduce cardiovascular disease in patients with PAD?

It has no impact on reducing cardiovascular disease

What impact do B complex vitamins have on reducing cardiovascular disease in patients with PAD?

They have no impact on reducing cardiovascular disease

What has folic acid and vitamin B12 been reported to reduce?

Serum homocysteine levels

What happens to fatty streaks over time?

They develop into fibrous plaques or atheromas

What are the indirect results of atherosclerosis in arteries?

Reduced blood flow and ischemia

What is the effect of cessation of nicotine product use on atherosclerosis risk?

It leads to a gradual reduction in atherosclerosis risk

What does homocysteine do to the binding of lipoprotein(a) in fibrin?

It increases the binding of lipoprotein(a) in fibrin

What is the main cause of ischemic necrosis in cells?

Reduced blood flow and ischemia

What is collateral circulation?

The development of new blood vessels to bypass blocked arteries

What are the accumulations on the intimal layer of the artery referred to as?

Fibrous plaques or atheromas

What has hyperhomocysteinemia been positively correlated with in some studies?

Increased risk of peripheral, cerebrovascular, and coronary artery disease as well as venous thromboembolism (VTE)

What is the main effect of nicotine in tobacco on blood flow?

Constriction of blood vessels leading to reduced blood flow

Which process affects the intima of large and medium-sized arteries?

Atherosclerosis

Study Notes

Cardiovascular Disease

  • The main cause of ischemic necrosis in cells is inadequate blood supply.

Atherosclerosis

  • Atherosclerotic lesions are predominantly found in the intimal layer of large and medium-sized arteries.
  • Fatty streaks develop into fibrous plaques over time.
  • Fibrous plaques consist of lipids, calcium, blood components, carbohydrates, and fibrous tissue.
  • Atherosclerosis can lead to ischemic necrosis, heart attack, and stroke.

Nicotine and Blood Flow

  • Nicotine in tobacco reduces blood flow.

Carbon Monoxide

  • Carbon monoxide reduces oxygen delivery to tissues in the body.

Diabetes and PAD

  • Diabetes increases the risk of peripheral artery disease (PAD).

Inflammation

  • C-reactive protein is a sensitive marker of cardiovascular inflammation.

Homocysteine

  • Hyperhomocysteinemia has been positively correlated with cardiovascular disease in some studies.
  • Homocysteine promotes coagulation by promoting thrombin formation.
  • Homocysteine inhibits protein C activation.
  • Homocysteine alters the binding of lipoprotein(a) in fibrin.
  • Folic acid and vitamin B12 reduce serum homocysteine levels.
  • Reducing serum homocysteine levels using folic acid and vitamin B12 reduces adverse cardiovascular events.

Arterial Disease

  • Arteriosclerosis is a diffuse process affecting the intima of large and medium-sized arteries.
  • Atherosclerosis involves the accumulation of lipids, calcium, blood components, carbohydrates, and fibrous tissue on the intimal layer of the artery.
  • Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a generalized disease of the arteries, usually present elsewhere in the body when it is present in the extremities.
  • Ischemic malnutrition and subsequent fibrosis of organs supplied by sclerotic arteries is a consequence of atherosclerosis.

Circulation

  • Collateral circulation is the development of new blood vessels to compensate for blocked arteries.

Miscellaneous

  • The main components of fibrous plaques are lipids, calcium, blood components, carbohydrates, and fibrous tissue.
  • The accumulations on the intimal layer of the artery are referred to as plaques.
  • The key difference between arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis is the accumulation of substances on the intimal layer in atherosclerosis.

Test your knowledge on the key differences between arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis, the two most common diseases of the arteries.

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