Angiosperms: Evolution and Characteristics

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32 Questions

What is the meaning of 'Angiosperm'?

Seed vessel

When did angiosperms arise in the fossil record?

About 130 million years ago

What is the major characteristic of flowers in angiosperms?

Modified for reproduction

Which class of angiosperms includes the grasses, lilies, and orchids?

Monocotyledonae (monocots)

What does double fertilization in angiosperms involve?

Fusion of one sperm nucleus with two polar nuclei

What does the term 'Dicotyledonae (dicots)' refer to in angiosperms?

Plants with two cotyledons

Which of the following is a characteristic that differentiates dicots from monocots?

Net leaf venation

What is the primary difference between the floral parts of dicots and monocots?

Type of pollen

Which term describes the attachment of ovules within the ovary?

Placentation

What is the collective term for both the calyx (sepals) and corolla (petals) of a flower?

Perianth

Which type of flower lacks one or more sexual parts?

Imperfect flower

What is the term for unisexual flowers on different plants, for example, willows?

Dioecious

Which term describes the relative positions of the floral parts to the ovary when other parts are attached below the ovary?

Hypogynous

What is the primary characteristic that differentiates monocots from dicots in terms of pollen?

'Monoaperturate' (1 pore/furrow) pollen

'Peduncle' refers to which part of a plant?

'Receptacle'

'Anther' refers to which part of a stamen?

'Pollen sacs'

What is the meaning of 'Anthophyta'?

Anthophyta refers to angiosperms or flowering plants.

What is the significance of the term 'vessel seed' in relation to angiosperms?

The term 'vessel seed' refers to the enclosure of ovules in a carpel, which is a major characteristic of angiosperms.

What is the process of double fertilization in angiosperms?

Double fertilization involves the fusion of one sperm nucleus with the egg nucleus, and another sperm nucleus with the polar nuclei to form the stored food (endosperm) within the seed.

What are the primary characteristics that differentiate monocotyledonae (monocots) from dicotyledonae (dicots)?

Monocots include about 65,000 species and have scattered vascular bundles in the stem, while dicots include about 165,000 species and have vascular bundles in a ring.

What is the major significance of the term 'double fertilization' in the life cycle of angiosperms?

Double fertilization leads to the formation of the endosperm, which serves as stored food within the seed.

What is the evolutionary significance of the rapid emergence and dominance of angiosperms in the fossil record about 130 million years ago?

The rapid emergence and dominance of angiosperms in the fossil record about 130 million years ago led to their becoming the dominant plants on earth.

What is the term for the arrangement of floral parts where sepals, petals, and stamens are fused to form a cup around the ovary?

Perigynous (superior ovary)

What is the term for the collective structure that includes the calyx (sepals) and corolla (petals) of a flower?

Perianth

What is the primary characteristic that differentiates dicots from monocots in the number of cotyledons?

2

What is the term for the attachment of ovules within the ovary?

Placentation

What is the term for unisexual flowers on different plants, for example, willows?

Dioecious

What is the term for the stalk of an individual flower in an inflorescence?

Pedicel

What is the term for the shoot tip upon which the floral parts are attached?

Receptacle

What is the term for the stalk of the stamen?

Filament

What is the term for the part of the pistil upon which the pollen lands?

Stigma

What is the term for the part of the flower that may be made of 1 carpel (simple) or many fused carpels (compound)?

Pistil

Explore the evolution and characteristics of angiosperms, also known as flowering plants or Magnoliophyta. Learn about their rapid emergence in the fossil record, dominance on earth, and major reproductive structures such as the carpel and flowers.

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