Ancient Greek Civilization History

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5 Questions

What caused the end of the civilization on Crete?

What prevented Athens from participating in colonization?

What type of democracy did ancient Greece have?

Who posed a threat to Greece during ancient times?

What led to the Peloponnesian War?


  • Approximately 3716 years ago, a mysterious civilization flourished on Crete with no defenses, leading peaceful lives and engaging in marine trade.
  • The civilization on Crete ended due to the greatest volcanic eruption in European history, leading to the myth of Atlantis.
  • The Dorian Greeks, who were warlike tribes, settled the nearby Greek mainland and destroyed the previous civilization, leaving only essentials such as the sailing ship and the potter's wheel.
  • Greek civilization spread around the Mediterranean, laying the foundations of the French wine industry and borrowing the alphabet and coins from their neighbors.
  • Athens and Sparta did not participate in colonization; Athens was born from a democracy, while Sparta was a military camp focused on preventing uprisings.
  • Greek democracy was direct, with all citizens able to participate in the assembly immediately.
  • The Persian Empire posed a threat to Greece, and the Greeks won the war through military innovation, the tactical advantage at Thermopylae, and financial resources from silver deposits.
  • Pericles became the head of the new financial center in Athens, restoring the Acropolis and extending the city walls to create a grid layout.
  • Sparta and its allies grew jealous of Athens' prosperity, leading to a cold war and ultimately the Peloponnesian War.
  • Greek tragedy and comedy flourished during the Peloponnesian War, with plays still relevant today being created.
  • Macedonians, regarded as semi-barbarians, became a new power in Greece and eventually blended Greek and Eastern culture to form the Hellenistic world.
  • Greek culture was spread by the Romans, who conquered Greece and Egypt and read the Iliad and Odyssey in Greek, and built a new city on the site of the old Greek colony of Byzantium to extend its life for another thousand years.


Test your knowledge of the rise and impact of the ancient Greek civilization, from Minoans to the Hellenistic world, including key events, cultural developments, and interactions with other civilizations.

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