Anatomy of the Heart Quiz

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61 Questions

Where is the space between the lungs, where the heart lies, located?

Base

What is the outermost layer of the heart called?

Epicardium

Which structure carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs?

Pulmonary Artery

What is the function of the tricuspid valve?

Regulate flow of deoxygenated blood from right atrium to right ventricle

Which valve is located between the left atrium and the left ventricle?

Bicuspid (Mitrial)

What is the largest artery in the body?

Aorta

Where does the sinoatrial node generate electrical impulses?

Right atrium

Which layer of the heart is the myocardium?

Middle layer

What do the pulmonary veins bring to the heart?

(Oxygenated blood) from lungs

Which part of the heart coordinates the electrical signals that regulate the rhythmic contraction of the heart muscle?

Atrioventricular Node

During which phase does S1 occur, signaling the ejection of blood from the ventricles into the pulmonary artery and aorta?

Ventricular systole

Which type of capillary is found in the liver and bone marrow, allowing for the passage of large substances like proteins?

Sinusoid

What is the term for the blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart?

Arteries

Which part of the heart is described as the pointed end?

Apex

What term refers to the results from the pressure of blood against a weakened area in the wall of an artery?

Aneurysm

Where does the coronary sinus collect deoxygenated blood from?

Myocardium

What is the primary mechanism of capillary exchange?

Diffusion

Which vessels are referred to as the exchange vessels of the circulatory system?

Capillaries

Which term describes the condition that results when fluid filters out of the capillaries faster than it’s reabsorbed and accumulates in the tissues?

Edema

What is the term for the space between the lungs and beneath the sternum where the heart resides?

Mediastinum

Which vessels return blood to the heart?

Veins

What is the function of the sinoatrial node in the heart?

Coordinates the rhythmic contraction of the heart muscle

Where is the epicardium located in the heart?

Outermost layer of the heart

Which valve is located between the right atrium and the right ventricle?

Tricuspid

Which blood vessel carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs?

Pulmonary Artery

What is the primary role of the aortic valve in the heart?

Regulates the flow of oxygenated blood from the left ventricle into the aorta

Where does the pericardium lie in relation to the other layers of the heart?

Outermost layer of the heart

What does the endocardium refer to in relation to the heart?

What is the key role of pulmonary veins in relation to the heart?

Pulmonary veins bring oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.

What is one of the primary functions of vena cava in relation to blood circulation?

Vena cava carry deoxygenated blood back to the heart.

What is one of the main roles of mediastinum in relation to its location?

To house and protect vital organs like the lungs and heart.

What is the function of the Purkinje fibers?

Coordinate the electrical signals for heart muscle contraction

Where does the coronary sinus collect blood from?

Myocardium

What is the role of the atrioventricular node in the heart's conduction system?

Coordinate electrical signals for heart muscle contraction

What occurs at the beginning of ventricular diastole?

S2 - Dubs pounds

Where are capillaries found in the circulatory system?

Between the blood and tissues

What causes edema in the body?

Faster filtration of fluid by capillaries

What is the unique ability of cardiac muscles to contract without nervous stimulation called?

Automaticity

Where does the pulmonary circulation begin?

Right atrium

Which vessels return blood to the heart?

Veins

What is the term for the smallest blood vessels in the vascular system?

Capillaries

Where is the sinoatrial node located in the heart?

In the myocardium, the middle layer of the heart

What is the role of the tricuspid valve in the heart's conduction system?

Regulates the flow of deoxygenated blood from the right atrium to the right ventricle

Which structure carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs?

Pulmonary artery

What is the primary function of mediastinum in relation to its location?

Provides a space for the heart between the lungs

Which part of the heart coordinates the electrical signals that regulate the rhythmic contraction of the heart muscle?

Sinoatrial Node

What is the largest artery in the body called?

Aorta

What is carried by pulmonary veins from the lungs to the heart?

Oxygenated blood

Where is the epicardium located in relation to other layers of the heart?

Outermost layer

What is regulated by aortic valve (aortic semilunar valve)?

Flow of oxygenated blood from left ventricle into aorta

What happens when deoxygenated blood enters pulmonary vein?

It moves towards left atrium of heart

Which part of the heart is responsible for the unique ability of the cardiac muscle to contract without nervous stimulation?

Purkinje Fibers

What occurs at the beginning of ventricular diastole when the semilunar valves close?

S2

Where does the polarization of cardiac cells occur?

Capillaries

What is the key role of the coronary sinus in the circulatory system?

Collect deoxygenated blood from the myocardium

What is the primary mechanism of capillary exchange in the circulatory system?

Diffusion

Where are sinusoid capillaries found in the circulatory system, allowing for the passage of large substances like proteins?

Liver and bone marrow

What is the term for the results from the pressure of blood against a weakened area in the wall of an artery?

Aneurysm

Where is the double-walled sac that surrounds the heart and root of the great vessels located?

Pericardium

What refers to the space between the lungs and beneath the sternum where the heart resides?

Mediastinum

Where does pulmonary circulation begin in relation to the heart's chambers?

Right ventricle

Study Notes

  • Mediastinum: space between lungs where heart lies
  • Apex: pointed end of heart resting on diaphragm
  • Base: top of heart where vessels enter and leave, specifically the Left AV node
  • Aorta: largest artery in the body
  • Endocardium: hearts inner most layer
  • Pericardium: hearts outermost layer
  • Myocardium: middle layer of heart, cardiac muscle
  • Epicardium: hearts outermost layer
  • Pulmonary Artery: carries deoxygenated blood to lungs
  • Vena Cava: veins carrying deoxygenated blood to heart
  • Pulmonary Vein: brings oxygenated blood from lungs to heart
  • Tricuspid Valve: regulates flow of deoxygenated blood from right atrium to right ventricle
  • Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve: regulates flow of oxygenated blood from left atrium to left ventricle
  • Pulmonic Valve: carries oxygenated blood from lungs to left atrium
  • Aortic Valve: regulates flow of oxygenated blood from left ventricle into aorta
  • Sinoatrial Node: heart's natural pacemaker, generating electrical impulses for heartbeat
  • Atrioventricular Node: coordinates electrical signals for heart muscle contraction
  • Purkinje Fibers: stimulate ventricular muscle contraction and coordination
  • Cardiac Output: blood pumped out by ventricles per minute
  • Coronary Sinus: large vein dividing left and right atria, collects deoxygenated blood from myocardium
  • S1 and S2: sounds heard during heartbeats, signaling ventricular systole and diastole respectively
  • Capillaries: smallest blood vessels in vascular system, site of nutrient, waste, and hormone transfer
  • Pericardial sac: double-walled sac surrounding heart and root of great vessels
  • Pulmonary Circulation: circulatory system that begins at right ventricle and involves circulation of blood through lungs
  • Systemic Circulation: circulatory system that begins at left ventricle and involves circulation of blood through body
  • Endocarditis: inflammation of inner heart layer (Endocardium)
  • Automaticity: unique ability of cardiac muscle to contract without nervous stimulation.

Test your knowledge of the anatomy of the heart with this quiz. Identify the different parts and layers of the heart, and their functions.

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