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Quiz 7

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Justine C.
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10 Questions

How do tRNAs become attached to the correct amino acid?

aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases

The reading frame to use for translating an mRNA into functional protein is determined by the

location of an AUG.

The splicing of introns out of an mRNA molecule is catalyzed by

RNA molecules that base pair with the splice sites to promote intron removal, called the splicesome.

Export of RNA from the nucleus requires the RNA to have which characteristic(s)?

5′ cap and poly-A tail

At which step of gene expression can cells amplify the number of copies of a protein made from a single gene?

both transcription and translation

The catalytic sites for peptide bond formation during translation is found in which part of the ribosome?

large subunit RNAs

Which type of RNA is converted into protein for performing its cellular function?

mRNA

Why does RNA polymerase make more mistakes than DNA polymerase?

RNA polymerase does not have proofreading activity.

What is the benefit of protein synthesis in polyribosomes?

More protein can be produced from a single RNA.

Which nucleic acid often base pairs with itself to fold into complex three-dimensional shapes in the cell?

RNA

Study Notes

tRNA Attachment to Amino Acids

  • Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, enzymes with high specificity, attach correct amino acids to tRNAs through a two-step process involving activation and transfer.

Determining Reading Frame

  • The reading frame for translating mRNA into protein is determined by the start codon (AUG) and the sequence of nucleotides that follow.

mRNA Splicing

  • The splicing of introns out of mRNA molecules is catalyzed by the spliceosome, a complex of small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) and proteins.

RNA Export from Nucleus

  • RNA export from the nucleus requires the RNA to have a signal sequence, which is recognized by the nuclear export machinery.

Amplifying Protein Copies

  • Cells can amplify the number of copies of a protein made from a single gene during the transcription step of gene expression.

Peptide Bond Formation

  • The catalytic sites for peptide bond formation during translation are found in the ribosome's large subunit, specifically in the peptidyl transferase center.

RNA Conversion to Protein

  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) is converted into protein for performing its cellular function.

RNA Polymerase vs DNA Polymerase

  • RNA polymerase makes more mistakes than DNA polymerase because it lacks the proofreading and editing capabilities of DNA polymerase.

Polyribosomes

  • The benefit of protein synthesis in polyribosomes is that it allows for the simultaneous translation of multiple mRNA molecules into proteins, increasing protein synthesis efficiency.

Nucleic Acid Folding

  • RNA often base pairs with itself to fold into complex three-dimensional shapes in the cell, which is important for its function and regulation.

This quiz covers processes in molecular biology, including tRNA attachment to amino acids, determining reading frames, and mRNA splicing.

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