Adaptive vs. Innate Immunity: Cytokines and Immune Communication

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35 Questions

What is the main focus of autoimmune diseases?

Damaging tissues of the body

Which type of immunity is nonspecific and older in evolutionary terms?

Innate immunity

What is the role of lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in adaptive immunity?

Recognizing specific microbial invaders

Which cells are involved in mediating innate immunity?

Granulocytes and leukocytes

What is the function of memory cells in adaptive immunity?

Providing a rapid response upon recurring infection

Where are lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) distributed in the body?

Throughout different tissues in the body

What does innate immunity focus on defending against?

Non-specific threats

'Adaptive immunity produces _ cells that permit a rapid response if a specific microbe appears again.' Fill in the blank.

'Memory'

Where do lymphocytes primarily undergo activation and proliferation?

Secondary lymphoid organs

What is the function of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the immune system?

Recognize and bind surface components of invaders

Which of the following is a characteristic of innate immunity?

Acts as a physical barrier against infections

What role do natural killer (NK) cells play in immunity?

Destroy unhealthy host cells

Which enzyme hydrolyzes bacterial cell wall components to kill bacterial cells?

Lysozyme

Why do some pathogenic bacteria avoid phagocytosis by granulocytes and macrophages?

By covering their cell walls with a capsule

What is the main function of complement activation by antigen-antibody complexes?

Rupture membranes of invading cells

How does opsonization contribute to the immune response?

It increases the efficiency of phagocytosis

What is the role of NK cells in the immune response?

Recognize antigens on infected cells and kill them

Which type of antibodies bind receptors for complement activation?

IgG and IgM

What is the primary source of complement system proteins?

Liver

How do antibodies optimize innate immunity through opsonization?

By enhancing phagocytosis efficiency

What happens when NK cells are activated?

They kill virus-infected cells

How do complement components help in the immune response?

Rupturing membranes, clumping cells, and activating leukocytes

What is the main function of cytokines in the immune system?

Stimulate growth in T lymphocytes and NK cells

Which statement accurately describes cytokines?

Coordinate both innate and adaptive immune responses.

What is the primary role of antibodies in the immune system?

Interact specifically with antigenic determinants

Which cytokine is responsible for eosinophil proliferation, differentiation, and activation?

IL-5

What is the function of GM-CSF and M-CSF cytokines?

Promote growth and differentiation of leukocyte progenitor cells

In what type of immunity do antibodies primarily play a role?

Adaptive immunity

Which region of the immunoglobulin molecules is recognized by cell surface receptors on basophils and mast cells?

Constant Fc region

What component of immunoglobulins makes up an antibody's antigen-binding site?

Variable region

Which class of antibodies is the most abundant in blood?

IgG

Which immunoglobulin class crosses the placental barrier into the fetal circulation, conferring passive immunity to the newborn?

IgG

Which class of antibodies is mainly produced in an initial response to an antigen?

IgM

Which immunoglobulin class is bound at its Fc region to receptors on mast cells and basophils?

IgE

Which class of antibodies is least abundant in plasma and acts as an antigen receptor on B lymphocytes?

IgD

Explore the differences between adaptive and innate immunity, focusing on adaptive immune responses and the role of memory lymphocytes. Learn how cells in the immune system communicate using cytokines within lymphoid organs and during inflammation at sites of infection or tissue injury.

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