Cells in Innate and Adaptive Immunity

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18 Questions

Which cells are involved in innate immunity among the following?

Natural killer cells

Which type of immunity is characterized by the production of diverse receptors that bind specifically to antigens?

Adaptive immunity

What is one characteristic of adaptive immunity that is not shared with innate immunity?

Has memory

Which components are part of innate immunity among the following?


Which is a barrier that prevents the entry of harmful microbes according to the text?

Intact skin and mucous membranes

What is the main function of complements in the immune system as mentioned in the text?

Enhance innate immunity

Which type of immunity is present before any exposure to pathogens and is effective from the time of birth?

Innate immunity

What is the main characteristic of innate immunity in terms of recognizing and responding to foreign bodies?

Quick recognition and response to a broad range of microbes

Which component of the immune system does not discriminate between kinds of foreign bodies?

Innate immunity

What are pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) an example of in the context of immune response?

Antigens recognized by innate immunity

Which type of immunity has the ability to differentiate 'self' from 'non-self'?

Adaptive immunity

What is the role of a receptor on the surface of white blood cells in the immune response process?

Activate downstream signaling pathways

What is the pH range of the skin due to secretions from sebaceous and sweat glands?

3 to 5

Which body secretions help inhibit infection by microbes through their washing action?

Saliva, tears, and urine

What is the function of ciliated cells lining the upper respiratory tract?

Prevent colonization by sweeping mucus and trapped particles

Which type of cells are considered the original inhabitants of the human body, preventing colonization by pathogens?

Normal flora bacteria

What is the main function of cytokines in the immune system?

Communicate between immune cells

Which type of reaction occurs when cells or tissues are under pressure or damaged?

Inflammatory reaction

Study Notes


  • Immunity is the body's ability to defend itself against infectious agents, foreign cells, and abnormal body cells such as cancer cells.
  • The immune system can differentiate 'self' from 'non-self'.

Innate Immunity

  • Present before any exposure to pathogens and is effective from the time of birth.
  • The first line of defense, always ready to provide immediate defense against invaders and damaged cells.
  • Nonspecific, does not discriminate between kinds of foreign bodies.
  • Quickly recognizes and responds to a broad range of microbes.
  • Recognizes pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) such as glycans and flagellin in bacteria cell walls.
  • No memory, there is no recognition that an intruder has attacked before and therefore no immunological memory.
  • Components include:
    • Physical and chemical barriers (e.g. skin, mucous membranes)
    • Inflammatory reaction
    • Phagocytosis
    • Natural killer cells
    • Protective proteins (e.g. complements, interferons)

Barriers to Entry

  • Intact skin is a barrier that cannot normally be penetrated by viruses or bacteria.
  • Mucous membranes lining the digestive, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts prevent the entry of harmful microbes.
  • Cells of the mucous membranes produce mucus, a viscous fluid that traps microbes and other particles.
  • The upper respiratory tract is lined by ciliated cells that sweep mucus and trapped particles or microbes into the throat.
  • The acidic environment (low pH) of the stomach destroys most pathogens before they can enter the intestines.
  • Normal flora (harmless bacteria) present in the intestine and other areas prevent colonization by pathogens.

Adaptive Immunity

  • Characterized by the production of a very large number of diverse receptors on the surface of white blood cells.
  • These receptors bind specifically to molecules called antigens.
  • Interactions lead to activation of the immune response.
  • Characteristics include:
    • The second line of defense.
    • Activated after exposure to pathogens.
    • Pathogen-specific.
    • Has memory.
  • Enhanced after first exposure to the antigen, and the person becomes immune.

Cells Involved in Immunity

  • Macrophages
  • Neutrophils
  • Dendritic cells
  • Natural killer cells
  • Complements
  • Cytokines (signaling proteins that act like messengers between cells of the immune system)

Test your knowledge about the cells involved in innate and adaptive immunity. Learn about the differences between innate and adaptive immunity, including their characteristics and roles in the immune response.

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