Acknowledgment Numbers in Computer Communication Networks

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What happens if an error-free ACK arrives with an ackNo related to one of the outstanding packets in the Go-Back-N protocol?

The packet is marked as acknowledged and the window slides to the right.

In case of a corrupted ACK or an error-free ACK with ackNo not related to outstanding packets arriving, what action is taken in the Go-Back-N protocol?

The ACK is discarded.

What does the receiver do when an error-free packet with seqNo in the window arrives in the Go-Back-N protocol?

Sends an ACK with ackNo = seqNo and delivers the packet to the application layer.

What is the purpose of sending an ACK with ackNo = Rn when an error-free packet with seqNo outside the window arrives at the receiver in the Go-Back-N protocol?

To slide the sender's window if some ACKs related to packets with seqNo < Rn were lost.

What action does the sender take when a time-out occurs in the Go-Back-N protocol?

Resend all unacknowledged packets in the window and restart the timer.

What is always true about the receiver's state in the Go-Back-N protocol?

It is always in the ready state.

What does the term 'cumulative' mean in the context of acknowledgment numbers in networking?

It means that the acknowledgment number represents the total bytes received so far.

In TCP segment format, what does the 'Sequence number' field indicate?

The number assigned to the first byte of data in the segment.

How does TCP ensure connectivity during data transmission?

By numbering each byte to be transmitted with sequence numbers.

What is the significance of Source port address in a TCP segment?

It defines the port number of the application sending the segment.

Why is it important for an acknowledgment number to be cumulative in networking?

To ensure that all bytes up to a certain point have been received successfully.

What does the term 'Segment Format' refer to in networking?

The structure and content of a TCP packet.

In the context of acknowledgment numbers in computer communication networks, what does an acknowledgment number represent?

The sequence number of the next packet expected by the receiver

If packet 2 has arrived successfully at the receiver in a Go-Back-N protocol, what acknowledgment number will be sent by the receiver?


What is the purpose of the control variable 'S' in the sender's side in a computer communication network?

To point to the only slot in the send window

In a Stop-and-Wait protocol, what state is the sender initially in?

Ready state

Why is it important for both ends to be in the established state before exchanging data packets in connection-oriented protocols?

To synchronize their sequence numbers

What event triggers the sender to create a packet in the ready state of a Stop-and-Wait protocol?

Request from the application layer

Learn about acknowledgment numbers in computer communication networks and how they announce the sequence number of the next packet expected by the receiver. Understand the conventions used to ensure reliable data transmission.

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