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4.4 Community Ecology

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What is the term used to describe the number of species and their relative abundance in a given habitat?

Species diversity

Which of the following best describes the predator-prey relationship?

Individuals of one population consume individuals of another population

What is the approximate period of the cycling of predator and prey population sizes in the lynx-snowshoe hare example?

10 years

What is the lag time between the predator and prey population cycles in the lynx-snowshoe hare example?

The predator population lags behind the prey population by 1-2 years

Which of the following habitats is described as having low species diversity?

Glaciers of Antarctica

What is the primary reason for the cycling of snowshoe hare and lynx populations?

Predator-prey dynamics, where the increase in hare numbers leads to an increase in lynx numbers, followed by a decline in hares and then lynx

What type of defense mechanism is used by the honey locust tree against herbivores?

Mechanical defense

What is the primary purpose of the toxins produced by the foxglove plant?

To deter herbivores

What is the primary defense mechanism used by the tropical walking stick insect to avoid detection by predators?

Camouflage

What is the primary purpose of the bright yellow and black coloration of the monarch butterfly caterpillar?

Deterring predators

What is the primary function of the secondary plant compounds produced by the foxglove plant?

To discourage consumption by animals

What is the primary function of the chameleon's ability to change color?

Camouflage to avoid detection by predators

What is the primary evolutionary driver behind the adaptations that allow prey species to escape predation?

Natural selection

What is the relationship between the predator-prey dynamics and the reciprocal evolutionary responses?

The predator-prey dynamics lead to the reciprocal evolutionary responses

Which type of species is considered the 'base' or 'bedrock' of a community?

Foundation species

What is a characteristic of foundation species?

They modify the environment to benefit other organisms

Which organism is mentioned as a foundation species in the text?

Kelp

What distinguishes a keystone species from other species in an ecosystem?

Their presence has inordinate influence on the ecosystem's structure and biodiversity

What happens to mussel populations when the keystone species Pisaster ochraceus is removed from a community?

They increase significantly

How do Asian carp threaten native species according to the text?

By outcompeting native species for food resources

'The coral reef provides structure by physically modifying the environment' - this statement refers to which type of species?

Foundation species

'Asian carp may outcompete native species for food' - What ecological concept does this exemplify?

'Survival of the Fittest'

'Coral is the foundation species of coral reef ecosystems' - Why is this important for other organisms in the ecosystem?

'To provide a habitat and protection'

'The European starling is categorized as an invasive species' - What impact can this have on local ecosystems?

'Negative effects on native bird populations'

What is the purpose of the bright coloration on the bellies of fire-bellied toads?

To warn potential predators that they are toxic

What is a key requirement for warning coloration to be effective?

The predator must be able to learn from negative experiences

What is one way that a harmless species can avoid being eaten by predators?

By mimicking the coloration of a harmful species

What is the purpose of multiple species sharing the same warning coloration?

To improve the compliance of potential predators in avoiding the species

According to the competitive exclusion principle, what will happen if two species are competing for the same resources in a habitat?

The species that is better adapted to the habitat will drive the other to extinction

What is the key reason why the competitive exclusion principle works?

Natural selection favors traits that reduce reliance on shared resources

What happened when the two protozoan species, Paramecium aurelia and Paramecium caudatum, were placed together in the same test tube?

P. aurelia outcompeted P. caudatum for food, leading to the latter's extinction

What is the purpose of the bright coloration on the wings of monarch butterflies?

To warn potential predators that they are toxic

What is the key difference between the fire-bellied toad and the harmless hoverfly in terms of their coloration?

The toad's coloration is natural, while the hoverfly's coloration is a form of mimicry

What is the key advantage that multiple unpleasant-tasting Heliconius butterfly species gain by sharing a similar color pattern?

It improves the compliance of potential predators in avoiding the species

What type of relationship is exhibited when one species benefits while the other is neither harmed nor benefited?

Commensalism

In the relationship between termites and protists, which organism benefits from the ability to digest cellulose?

Termites

What is the relationship between the protists and the symbiotic bacteria in the termite gut?

Mutualism

In the relationship between a fungus and photosynthetic algae or cyanobacteria in lichens, which organism produces glucose?

Algae or cyanobacteria

What type of growth pattern is exhibited by P. aurelia and P. caudatum when grown together?

Logistic growth

What happens to the population of P. caudatum when grown together with P. aurelia?

It hardly grows at all, and eventually its population drops to zero

What type of relationship is exhibited when one species benefits while the other is harmed?

Parasitism

In the relationship between a bird and a tree, which organism benefits from the nesting?

The bird

What type of relationship is exhibited between the termite and the protists in its gut?

Mutualism

In the relationship between a fungus and photosynthetic algae/cyanobacteria in lichens, which organism provides a physical structure that protects the algae/cyanobacteria?

Fungus

What is a parasite?

An organism that feeds off another without killing it immediately

How does parasitism differ from predation?

Parasitism involves the parasite benefiting, whereas predation involves immediate death of the prey

Why do parasites usually slow down the process of killing their hosts?

To allow time for their offspring to find new hosts

How does a tapeworm benefit from its host?

By residing in the host's intestine and siphoning food

What is species richness?

The number of different species in a particular area and their relative abundance

Where is species richness highest according to the text?

Near the equator

What factor besides latitude influences species richness?

Island size

Why do foundation species often have high relative abundance?

Foundation species provide shelter and food for many other species

'Species richness varies with island size and distance from the mainland.' This statement supports which ecological principle?

Island Biogeography Theory

What does biodiversity measure?

The number of different species in an area and their abundance

What type of succession occurs following the retreat of a glacier?

Primary succession

What is the main difference between primary and secondary succession?

Primary succession starts from bare rock, while secondary succession occurs on existing soil.

What role do pioneer species play in primary succession?

They establish the foundation for soil formation.

What is the main outcome of secondary succession?

Rapid recolonization of plants

In what type of environment do intermediate species emerge?

After a wildfire

What factor initiates the growth of shrubs and small trees in secondary succession?

Growth of grasses and forbs

Explore the concept of community ecology, focusing on the interactions between populations within a habitat and the diversity of species. Learn about how different habitats exhibit varying levels of species diversity. Ideal for students studying ecology.

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