Knowing and Understanding with Communication Assumed Knowledge Exercises Prime Factorization HCF LCM Operations with factors Chapter 1 NUMBER A Exponent Notation B The Fundamental... Knowing and Understanding with Communication Assumed Knowledge Exercises Prime Factorization HCF LCM Operations with factors Chapter 1 NUMBER A Exponent Notation B The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic C Order of Operations Investigating Patterns and Communicating (describing patterns) Exponents
Understand the Problem
The question seems to be a list of topics that include concepts related to number theory and operations involving factors, prime factorization, and exponent notation. It indicates a need to understand these mathematical principles.
Answer
The primary concepts are factors, prime factorization, and exponent notation.
Answer for screen readers
There is no specific numerical answer to provide, as the question appears to focus on explanations of concepts rather than a solvable problem. The key concepts in number theory include factors, prime factorization, and exponent notation.
Steps to Solve

Identify Key Concepts
Identify the central concepts in number theory, such as factors, prime factorization, and exponent notation. Understanding what each term means will help in solving problems related to these topics. 
Understanding Factors
Factors of a number are integers that can be multiplied together to produce that number. For instance, the factors of 12 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12. 
Understanding Prime Factorization
Prime factorization is the breakdown of a number into its prime factors. For example, the prime factorization of 12 is $2^2 \times 3^1$ since $2 \times 2 \times 3 = 12$. 
Understanding Exponent Notation
Exponent notation expresses repeated multiplication of a number by itself. For example, $a^n$ means $a$ is multiplied by itself $n$ times. In the prime factorization $2^2 \times 3^1$, the $2^2$ indicates $2$ is multiplied by itself twice. 
Applying Knowledge
Use the knowledge of factors, prime factorization, and exponent notation to factor numbers or solve problems. Ensure to correctly calculate and represent results in exponent form when necessary.
There is no specific numerical answer to provide, as the question appears to focus on explanations of concepts rather than a solvable problem. The key concepts in number theory include factors, prime factorization, and exponent notation.
More Information
Understanding factors and prime factorization is fundamental in many areas of mathematics, including simplifying fractions, finding greatest common divisors, and solving problems in algebra.
Tips
 Confusing factors with multiples: Factors divide a number without leaving a remainder, while multiples are the result of multiplying a number by an integer.
 Not recognizing that prime factors can only be whole numbers greater than 1 that have no other factors besides 1 and themselves.