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Sunni Schools of Law and Theology in Tenth Century Islam

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What is the primary difference between Shari'a and Fiqh?

Shari'a is the divine law, while Fiqh is the human understanding and interpretation of the divine law.

Which school of Islamic law emphasized the principle of 'Istihsan', or preference based on opinion?

Hanafi school

Which school of Islamic law emphasized the 'living tradition' of the people of Medina?

Maliki school

Which school of Islamic law restricted the use of qiyas (analogical reasoning) and ijma' (consensus of scholars)?

Shafi'i school

Which school of Islamic law held the principle of 'Maslaha', or public interest?

Maliki school

Which school of Islamic law originated in Iraq and emphasized the use of reason?

Hanafi school

What was the primary work of Ahmad ibn Hanbal?

Al-Musnad

Which of the following statements best describes Ahmad ibn Hanbal's view on qiyas (analogical reasoning) and ijma' (consensus)?

He relegated them to an insignificant role.

Which modern-day country is predominantly influenced by the Hanbali school of Islamic jurisprudence?

Saudi Arabia

Which of the following groups is associated with the discipline of 'ilm al-kalam (Islamic theology)?

The Mu'tazilites

What was Ahmad ibn Hanbal's stance on the discipline of 'ilm al-kalam (Islamic theology)?

He considered it a bid'a (innovation) in Islam.

Who was the fourth Imam accepted by the majority of Shi'a, known for his quiescent attitude towards the Umayyads?

Ali bin al-Husayn

Which branch of Shi'a recognizes twelve rightful Imams?

Imamiyya

After the death of Ali bin al-Husayn, which faction did the Shi'a divide into?

Supporters of Zayd bin 'Ali

Which Islamic sect recognizes seven Imams as rightful leaders?

Isma'ilis

Who led the battle of Karbala in 680 CE against the Umayyads?

Husayn bin 'Ali

Which branch of Shi'a recognizes five rightful Imams?

Isma'ilis

What distinguishes the Ismāʿīlīs from the Imamiyya (Twelvers) regarding the imamate?

Passing of the imamate from Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq to Muḥammad through Ismāʿīl

Which Shi'i movement held that the imamate had come to an end with the eleventh imam, Ḥasan al-ʿAskarī?

Imamiyya (Twelvers)

Which group within Shi'ism developed the concept of a hidden twelfth imam known as the mahdī?

Imamiyya (Twelvers)

What was a distinguishing political characteristic of the Ismāʿīlīs among Shi'i groups?

Leading rebellions against the Abbasids

Which movement within Shi'ism believed that agents act on behalf of a hidden imam until his appearance as the mahdī?

Imamiyya (Twelvers)

'Dāʿīs' in the context of Shi'i movements refer to individuals who were primarily involved in:

Preaching and converting new peoples to their faith

Which group recognized Muhammad al-Baqir as the rightful heir and subsequently divided into the Isma'ilis and the Imamiyya?

Those recognizing Ja'far al-Sadiq

Which of the following statements about the Zaydiyya is correct?

The school founded by al-Qasim al-Rassi is the only surviving school today, mainly in Yemen.

Which group believed in the imamate of Ja'far al-Sadiq's eldest son Isma'il and his descendants?

The Isma'ilis

Which of the following statements about the Imamiyya is NOT true?

They believed in the imamate of Isma'il and his descendants.

Which of the following events is NOT mentioned in the text regarding the Zaydiyya?

They established a caliphate in Andalusia.

Which of the following statements is correct about the Shi'i movements mentioned in the text?

The Isma'ilis and the Imamiyya emerged from a division within the followers of Muhammad al-Baqir.

Which central Sufi concept emphasizes complete trust and reliance in God, often described as the 'letting go' of one's own will?

Tawakkul

Which Sufi order, founded by Abdul-Qadir Gilani in the 12th century, is known for its emphasis on spiritual purification and the attainment of divine proximity?

Qadiriyya

The Sufi concept of ___________ refers to the annihilation or dissolution of the individual self, leading to a state of unity with the divine.

Fana'

Which influential Sufi thinker and theologian, known for his work 'The Revival of the Religious Sciences', emphasized the importance of balancing the exoteric (outward) and esoteric (inward) aspects of Islam?

Abu Hamid al-Ghazali

Which Sufi order, founded in the 12th century by Najm al-Din Kubra, is known for its emphasis on spiritual practices like meditation, dhikr, and the cultivation of inner contemplation?

Kubrawiyya

The proliferation of Sufi ___________ in the 12th century onward led to the widespread dissemination and popularization of Sufi teachings and practices across the Islamic world.

Orders

How is the concept of Fana' related to Sufi mysticism?

It refers to the concept of complete annihilation of the self in the Divine presence.

What is the significance of a murshid-murid relationship in Sufi orders?

It signifies the special relationship between a spiritual guide and a disciple.

Which mystical order was deeply connected with Abu Hamid al-Ghazali?

Suhrawardiyya

What is the central aspect that distinguishes mystical orders in Islam?

The chain of transmission (ṭarīqa)

What is the primary method for attaining divine truth (haqīqa) in Sufi mysticism?

Meditation and experiencing psychological states like aḥwāl and maqāmāt

How do Sufis often combine missionary activities with politics?

By exerting political influence while spreading Islam

What was the central concept of Sufism that some mystics focused on?

Absolute trust in God (tawakkul)

Which Sufi master introduced the doctrine of strict self-control and the annihilation of the self (fana')?

The text does not mention a specific Sufi master who introduced this doctrine

What did Abu Hamid al-Ghazali write that established a moderate form of mysticism?

Ihya' 'Ulum ad-Din (The Revival of the Religious Sciences)

Which Sufi order was established by 'Abd al-Qadir al Jilani?

The Qadiriyah

Which Sufi order was established by Abu Najib al-Suhrawardi?

The Suhrawardiyya

Which Sufi order, founded by Abdul-Qadir Gilani in the 12th century, is known for its emphasis on spiritual purification and the attainment of divine proximity?

Qadiriyya

Which Sufi order, founded by Abu Najib al-Suhrawardi, is known for its integration of philosophical and mystical elements in its teachings?

Suhrawardiyya

Which Sufi order, inspired by the Persian poet Jala al-Din al-Rumi, was primarily restricted to the region of Anatolia?

Mawlawiyya

Which Sufi order, founded by Abu al-Hasan al-Shadhili, is known for its emphasis on the spiritual practice of dhikr (remembrance of God) and its focus on the inner journey of the seeker?

Shadhliyya

Which Sufi order, founded by Ahmad al-Rifa'i in the 12th century, is known for its ecstatic practices and the veneration of its founder?

Rifa'iyya

Which Sufi order, inspired by the teachings of the Persian Sufi poet Jala al-Din al-Rumi, developed a unique dance-based spiritual practice known as the Sema?

Mawlawiyya

Which Sufi order was attributed to Ahmad ibn al-Rifa'I and became significant for the development of institutional Sufism?

Mawlawiyya

Who is credited with establishing the Shadhliyya order that became popular in Egypt?

Abu al-Hasan Ali al-Shadhili

Which Sufi order was founded by 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani in the 12th century and is considered important and widely spread?

Suhrawardiyya

Which mystical order was associated with al-Suhrawardi and gained prominence during the 13th century golden age of Sufism?

Shadhliyya

'Ahmad ibn al-Rifa'I is associated with which Sufi order known for its emphasis on spiritual practices like meditation?

Suhrawardiyya

'Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani established which widely spread Sufi order that continues to be significant?

Mawlawiyya

Which of the following Sufi orders was founded by Ahmad al-Rifai and is known for its practices involving fire and snake handling?

Rifa'iyya

Which Sufi order is associated with the famous whirling dervishes and their practice of Sama' (spiritual dance)?

Mawlawiyya

Which of the following Sufi orders was established by Abu Najib al-Suhrawardi and emphasizes the importance of spiritual purification through asceticism and self-denial?

Suhrawardiyya

Which Sufi order, founded by 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani in the 12th century, is known for its emphasis on spiritual purification and the attainment of divine proximity?

Qadiriyya

Which Sufi order was founded by Ali al-Shadili and is known for its emphasis on the importance of the spiritual guide (murshid) and the strict adherence to the Shari'a (Islamic law)?

Shadhliyya

What was the primary goal of the Wahhabi reformers, according to the text?

To ensure that Islam was reflected in the political system and supported in both private and public life

Which of the following practices did the Wahhabis reject, according to the text?

All of the above

Which of the following practices did the Wahhabis make obligatory, according to the text?

Attending public prayer

What was the primary goal of the Wahhabi reformers in creating a new system of ethics and morals, according to the text?

To cleanse the society from any foreign practices and adoptions

What was the relationship between the Wahhabi reformers and the political rule?

The Wahhabis supported the existing political rule and sought to legitimize it

Which movement, founded by Hasan al-Banna in Egypt, is mentioned in the text as having spread to different Arab countries?

The Muslim Brotherhood

What was Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab's primary goal in reforming religious practices?

To advocate for a strict adherence to the doctrine of tawhid (God's oneness) and the rejection of all later innovations

How did Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab's actions, such as cutting down a sacred tree and destroying a monument, reflect his reformist aims?

They were symbolic gestures to demonstrate his adherence to the doctrine of tawhid and his rejection of practices he deemed idolatrous

What was the significance of the alliance between Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab and Muhammad ibn Saud?

It led to the establishment of the first Saudi state, combining political and religious authority

Which statement best describes Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab's stance towards the 'ulama' (Islamic scholars) of his time?

He accused the 'ulama' of lacking independent thinking and blindly following traditional authorities

What was the significance of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab's actions in stoning an adulteress?

It was a demonstration of his adherence to the shari'a (Islamic law) and his rejection of leniency towards certain crimes

Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between the 18th-century reformers mentioned in the text?

They differed significantly in their concerns and approaches to reform, despite their shared historical context

Explore the differences between Shari'a and Fiqh, the divine law and human understanding of Islamic law. Learn about Sunni schools of law (madhāhib) and theology ('ilm al-kalām) in the tenth century.

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