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Mixed Questions on Angiosperms I

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What is the term used to describe the fusion of one sperm with the female gamete (egg) and the other sperm with the polar nuclei in angiosperms?

Double fertilization

Which type of pollination involves the transfer of pollen from anther to stigma within the same flower or between flowers on the same plant?

Self-Pollination

What is the term for pollination by wind in plants?

Anemophily

Which specialized adaptation of a flower for a specific pollinator type is known as?

Pollination syndrome

In plant reproduction, what does the microgametophyte consist of?

Three nuclei within the pollen tube

What is the term used for pollination by animals such as birds, bats, or insects?

Zoophily

Plants that are wind-pollinated are often referred to as:

Anemophilous

What is the function of sepals in a flower?

To protect the flower bud

Which of the following flower structures encloses the ovules?

Calyx

What is the main function of petals in a flower?

To attract pollinators

Which plant structure contains the male reproductive cells in a flower?

Stamen

In a complete flower, which whorl contains the male reproductive organs?

Androecium

What is the function of the stigma in a flower?

To receive pollen grains

Which part of a flower develops into a fruit after fertilization?

Ovary

What is the inflorescence arrangement where flowers are borne on a stalk with equal pedicels?

Umbel

What is the function of the outer wall of a pollen grain?

Taxonomy classification

Which structure in the female gametophyte may fuse into a diploid nucleus?

Polar nuclei

How many male gametes are produced from the generative nucleus in a pollen grain?

Two

Which part of the pollen grain forms the wall of the pollen tube?

Intine

What is the function of the antipodal cells in the female gametophyte?

Positioned at the 'inner' end

Which structure in the male gametophyte undergoes mitosis to form two-celled structures?

Microspore nucleus

What is the composition of the thick outer wall of a pollen grain?

Sporopollenin

Where are the synergids positioned within the female gametophyte?

'Mycropylar' end

How many times does the nucleus of the remaining megaspore divide by mitosis to produce the 8-celled female gametophyte?

Three times

What is formed by two of the nuclei that migrate toward the center of the embryo sac during its development?

Polar nuclei

What is the main function of sepals in a flower?

To protect the immature flower

What is the purpose of nectaries in a flower?

To attract pollinators

What is the structure that produces eggs in a flower?

Gynoecium

What is the difference between an inflorescence and a solitary flower?

An inflorescence is a cluster of flowers, while a solitary flower is a single flower

What is the reproductive whorl in a flower?

Androecium and Gynoecium

What is the function of the anther in a flower?

To produce pollen

What is the role of petals in a flower?

To attract pollinators

What is a bract?

A leafy appendage at the base of the stalk

What is the receptacle in a flower?

The expanded terminal end of the flower stalk

What is the androecium in a flower?

The male reproductive whorl

Explain the significance of the APG III system in the classification of flowering plants.

The APG III system helps establish a consensus on the taxonomy of flowering plants using recent knowledge from phylogenetic studies.

Describe the process of double fertilization in angiosperms.

Double fertilization involves the fusion of one sperm with the egg cell and the other sperm with the polar nuclei, resulting in the formation of endosperm in the seed.

What are the key components found in the xylem of angiosperms?

Xylem in angiosperms contains vessel elements, fibers, and tracheids.

Explain the composition of phloem in angiosperms.

Phloem in angiosperms consists of companion cells and sieve tubes.

What is the role of endosperm in a seed?

Endosperm in a seed serves as a triploid nutritive tissue.

Describe the formation of the megagametophyte in the angiosperm life cycle.

The megaspore mother cell undergoes meiosis to produce four megaspores, one of which develops into the megagametophyte through mitosis.

Explain the importance of the relationship between sporophyte and gametophyte in angiosperms.

In angiosperms, the gametophyte is reduced and dependent on the sporophyte, continuing the life cycle trend.

What is the main function of ovules in the ovary of a flower?

Ovules in the ovary develop into seeds after fertilization.

Discuss the co-evolution of angiosperms with animals for pollination.

Angiosperms have co-evolved with animals for pollination, leading to diverse forms and specialized structures.

How does the angiosperm life cycle demonstrate a reduction in the gametophyte generation?

In the angiosperm life cycle, the gametophyte generation is further reduced compared to other plant groups.

What is the significance of double fertilization in angiosperms?

One sperm fertilizes the egg to form the zygote, while the other sperm fuses with the polar nuclei to form the triploid endosperm cell.

Explain the difference between self-pollination and cross-pollination in angiosperms.

Self-pollination occurs within the same flower or between flowers on the same plant, while cross-pollination happens between the anther of one plant and the stigma of another plant of the same species.

What are the two types of biotic agents involved in pollination in angiosperms?

The two types of biotic agents are animals and insects.

How are anemophily and hydrophily different from each other in terms of pollination?

Anemophily is pollination by wind, while hydrophily is pollination by water.

What is the composition of the thick outer wall of a pollen grain in angiosperms?

Sporopollenin

How many times does the nucleus of the remaining megaspore divide by mitosis to produce the 8-celled female gametophyte in angiosperms?

Three times

What are pollination syndromes or systems in angiosperms?

Pollination syndromes or systems are specialized adaptations of flowers for specific pollinator types.

What is the role of endosperm in angiosperm seeds?

Endosperm provides nutrients for the developing embryo in angiosperm seeds.

What structures are positioned at the micropylar end of the female gametophyte in angiosperms?

Two synergids and the female gamete (egg)

What is the name of the male gametes produced from the generative nucleus in a pollen grain of angiosperms?

Sperm

Explain the difference between wind-pollinated and insect-pollinated plants.

Wind-pollinated plants rely on wind for pollination, while insect-pollinated plants attract insects for pollination.

What is the function of the antipodal cells in the female gametophyte of angiosperms?

Positioned at 'inner' end

What is the significance of floral morphology in relation to pollinators?

Floral morphology is directly related to the type of pollinator a flower attracts.

How do plants differ in their specialization for a particular pollinator?

Plants can be either specialists or generalists in their adaptation to a particular pollinator.

What is the name of the two nuclei that migrate toward the center of the embryo sac during its development in angiosperms?

Polar nuclei

What are the two types of animal pollinators mentioned in the text?

The two types are birds and insects.

What is the function of the intine in a pollen grain of angiosperms?

Forms the wall of the pollen tube

What is the name of the female gamete in the female gametophyte of angiosperms?

Egg

What is the term used to describe the fusion of one sperm with the female gamete (egg) and the other sperm with the polar nuclei in angiosperms?

Double fertilization

What does each microspore nucleus in a pollen grain of angiosperms undergo to form two-celled structures?

Mitosis

What is the function of the androecium in a flower?

The androecium is the male reproductive part of a flower, consisting of stamens that produce pollen.

Explain the composition and function of the calyx in a flower.

The calyx is the outermost layer of a flower, composed of sepals that protect the immature flower and later open to reveal the mature flower.

Describe the structure and role of the corolla in a flower.

The corolla consists of petals that attract pollinators and come in various forms to aid in pollination.

What is the main function of the carpel in a flower?

The carpel is the female reproductive organ in a flower, responsible for producing eggs and containing the ovules.

Explain the significance of double fertilization in the life cycle of angiosperms.

Double fertilization in angiosperms involves one sperm fertilizing the egg to form the embryo and the other sperm uniting with the polar nuclei to form endosperm, providing nourishment to the developing embryo.

What is the role of endosperm in the seed of angiosperms?

Endosperm in angiosperm seeds serves as a source of nourishment for the developing embryo.

Explain the function of xylem and phloem in angiosperms.

Xylem transports water and minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant, while phloem transports sugars produced during photosynthesis to different parts of the plant.

Describe the APG III system and its significance in plant taxonomy.

The APG III system is a modern classification system for flowering plants based on genetic relationships, providing a more accurate understanding of plant evolution and relationships.

What is the life cycle of an angiosperm and how does it differ from other plant groups?

The life cycle of an angiosperm involves double fertilization, where one sperm fertilizes the egg and the other combines with the polar nuclei to form endosperm. This unique process sets angiosperms apart from other plant groups.

Explain the formation and function of the receptacle in a flower.

The receptacle is the expanded, terminal end of a flower stalk where floral parts arise. It provides support for the flower's reproductive structures.

Learn about the unique relationship between the specialist Bucket orchid and male euglossine bees in the process of insect pollination. Discover how specialized shoots develop from flower buds and the different parts of inflorescences and solitary flowers.

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