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Fertilization: The Journey of Sperm and Oocyte

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21 Questions

What is the primary mechanism by which oxygen and carbon dioxide cross the placenta?

Simple diffusion

During which weeks of fetal development does sexual differentiation occur?

Weeks 9-12

What is the primary function of relaxin during pregnancy?

To loosen the pelvis and dilate the cervix

What is the approximate increase in caloric intake required during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy?

300 calories per day

What is the primary hormone responsible for stimulating contractions during labor?

Oxytocin

What is the term for the stage of childbirth during which the uterus returns to its normal size after delivery?

Involution

What occurs to the foramen ovale and ductus arterioles after birth?

They close to adjust to the infant's new circulation

What is the primary function of brown fat in the newborn?

To regulate body temperature

What is the term for the mixture of colostrum and milk produced by the mother in the first 7 days after birth?

Transitional milk

What is the term for an individual who carries a recessive allele that can be passed on to their offspring?

Carrier

What is the term for the process by which the uterus returns to its pre-pregnancy size after birth?

Involution

What is the primary hormone responsible for establishing and maintaining milk supply in lactation?

Prolactin

What is the result of the fusion of the sperm and oocyte nuclei during fertilization?

The formation of a zygote with genetic material from both parents

What is the primary function of the corona radiata and zona pellucida surrounding the oocyte?

To block and select the sperm that will fertilize the oocyte

What is the purpose of the acrosomal reaction during fertilization?

To release enzymes that help the sperm penetrate the corona radiata and zona pellucida

What is the result of the fertilization membrane forming after fertilization?

An impenetrable barrier is formed to prevent further fertilization

What is the primary function of the yolk sac during embryonic development?

To provide nourishment to the embryo until the placenta is functional

During what week of embryonic development does the placenta become fully functional?

Week 4-12

What is the result of the embryonic folding process during embryonic development?

The formation of a cylindrical shape from a flat sheet of cells

What is the purpose of the hCG released during implantation?

To keep the corpus luteum healthy, growing, and secreting progesterone

What is the primary function of the chorion during embryonic development?

To surround all other embryonic membranes

Learn about the process of fertilization, where a sperm and an oocyte combine to form a zygote. Discover how millions of sperm are killed during fertilization and what happens to the surviving ones. Understand the role of acidity, cervical mucus, and phagocytic leukocytes in this process.

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