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Female Reproductive System Quiz

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24 Questions

What is the main component of the clitoris?

Erectile tissue

What is the primary function of the mammary glands?

To produce milk for newborns

What is the stage at which oocyte production begins in females?

Before birth

What marks the end of the follicular phase and the start of the luteal phase in the ovarian cycle?

Ovulation

What is the primary difference between the female and male sexual response?

Latent period

What is the average age at which fertility in females begins to decline rapidly?

35 years

What is the primary function of the uterine tubes?

To receive the ovulated oocyte and move it to the uterus

What is the main function of the nonciliated cells in the uterine tubes?

To produce secretions to keep the oocyte and sperm moist and nourished

What is the approximate number of oocytes present in the ovaries at birth?

7 million

What is the function of the perimetrium in the uterus?

To provide a serous layer to the uterus

What is the main function of the resident bacteria in the vagina?

To keep the vagina acidic and healthy

What is the function of the greater vestibular glands?

To release mucus into the vestibule

What is the primary function of the corpus luteum in the ovarian cycle?

To produce and secrete estrogen and progesterone

What is the primary difference between the secondary oocyte and the first polar body after meiosis I?

The secondary oocyte contains more cytoplasm

At what stage of fetal development do XX individuals begin to show female reproductive structures?

8-9 weeks

What is the role of the SRY gene in sexual determination?

It triggers the development of testes

What is the consequence of a failure of the secondary oocyte to complete meiosis II?

It will degenerate and be eliminated

What is the primary reason for the decline in fertility in females after the age of 35?

Decreased oocyte quality and quantity

What is the primary function of the ovarian follicles?

To produce ova and sex hormones

What is the purpose of the secretions produced by the nonciliated cells in the uterine tubes?

To keep the oocyte and sperm moist and nourished

What is the primary function of the endometrium in the uterus?

To nourish a fertilized ovum

What is the purpose of the acidic environment in the vagina?

To keep the vagina healthy and free from infection

What is the function of the fimbriae in the uterine tubes?

To move the oocyte to the uterus

What is the approximate number of oocytes remaining at puberty?

250,000

Study Notes

Female Reproductive System

  • Clitoris is composed largely of erectile tissue

Oogenesis

  • Oogenesis is the process of producing ova (eggs)
  • Ova production begins before birth and continues until menopause
  • Each month, several oocytes are released, but usually only one enters meiosis I
  • Secondary oocyte: the larger cell containing nearly all the cytoplasm of the primary oocyte after division in meiosis I
  • First polar body: the smaller cell after meiosis I
  • Secondary oocyte pauses in Metaphase II, and if not penetrated, it deteriorates; if penetrated, it quickly completes meiosis II, producing one large ovum

Ovarian Cycle

  • Follicle phase: primordial follicle → primary follicle → secondary follicle → late secondary follicle → vesicular follicle → ovulation
  • Ovulation: release of the secondary oocyte, marks the end of the follicular phase and the start of the luteal phase
  • Luteal stage: granulosa cells of the vesicular follicle form an endocrine structure called the corpus luteum
  • Corpus luteum secretes progesterone and some estrogen
  • If no pregnancy, the corpus luteum starts degenerating

Hormone Regulation

  • Estrogen and progesterone levels fluctuate during the ovarian cycle
  • Pituitary hormone controls the ovarian cycle

Female Sexual Response

  • Similar to male response, but without ejaculation
  • No latent period in women, unlike men
  • Orgasm is not required for reproduction

Menopause

  • Fertility in females peaks in the late 20s and declines slowly until 35, then rapidly declines
  • After a full year without menses, a woman is said to have completed menopause
  • Reduced estrogen and progesterone levels lead to symptoms during menopause
  • Post-menopause, lowered estrogen can lead to other health issues in females

Puberty and Sexual Determination

  • Genetic determination: one pair of chromosomes are the sex chromosomes (X or Y)
  • Females = XX, Males = XY
  • If fertilized with X from Mom and X from Dad = female, X from Mom and Y from Dad = male
  • Y has SRY gene, the sex-determining region on the Y chromosome, which initiates testes development
  • Reproductive system differentiation:
    • 5-6 weeks: Sexually indifferent
    • 7-8 weeks: XY individuals begin to show male parts
    • 8-9 weeks: XX individuals begin to show female parts

Female Internal Genitalia

  • Ovary: primary female reproductive organ, produces gametes (ova) and sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone)
  • Ovarian follicles: each follicle consists of an immature egg called an oocyte
  • Number of eggs are determined at birth, with 7 million oocytes at birth, and about 250,000 remaining at puberty
  • Duct system:
    • Uterine tubes (fallopian tubes or oviducts) receive ovulated oocyte, with no direct contact with ovary
    • Oocyte moved to uterus by currents of peritoneal fluid caused by movement of fimbriae
    • Nonciliated cells produce secretions to keep oocyte and sperm (if present) moist and nourished
  • Uterus: hollow, thick-walled, muscular organ
    • Functions: retain, receive, and nourish a fertilized ovum
    • Three layers: perimetrium (outermost serous layer), myometrium (middle smooth muscle layer), and endometrium (mucosal lining of the uterine cavity)
  • Vagina: birth canal
    • Functions: passageway for delivery of infant and menstrual flow
    • Resident bacteria make the vagina acidic, keeping it healthy and free from infection

External Genitalia

  • Vulva: includes mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, vestibule, and clitoris
  • Mammary glands: produce milk to newborn, present in both males and females

Test your knowledge about the internal genitalia of the female reproductive system, including the ovary, ovarian follicles, and duct system. Learn about the production of gametes and sex hormones, and how oocytes are moved to the uterus.

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