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Finals Study Guide

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149 Questions

What is the term used to describe the relationships between certain gestural and play skills and the development of language?

Local homologies

What is the purpose of the Play Scale in assessing language development?

To identify the child's highest level of symbolic behavior

Which of the following assessments is used to evaluate communication development?

Communication Development Inventory

What is the name of the assessment tool developed by Wetherby and Prizant in 2003?

Communication and Symbolic Play Scale

What is the term used to describe the ability to demonstrate functional play?

Functional play

What is the typical expressive vocabulary size of a 3-5 year old child during the developing language period?

Larger than 50 words

What is the key consideration when assessing older clients with moderate to severe impairments during the developing language stage?

Focusing on communication abilities in important social environments

What is the benefit of direct teaching of phonological awareness and letter-sound correspondence in reading and spelling development?

It results in a significant advantage in reading and spelling skills 4 years later

What is the role of family-centered practice in the assessment of developing language clients?

Parents are partners in the assessment process and their concerns are taken seriously

Why may standardized measures overestimate the competence of older clients with ASD during the developing language stage?

Because they provide support in structured contexts

What is the primary function of phonological awareness in the acquisition of literacy?

To recognize the relationships between sounds and letters

At what stage of language development do children typically combine words into sentences?

Brown’s stage II-V

What is the primary goal of family-centered practice in the assessment of developing language clients?

To include families in the assessment process

Why is it important to assess functional communication in older clients with severe disabilities?

To understand communication needs in various environments

What is the benefit of teaching phonological awareness in conjunction with letter-sound correspondence?

Improved reading and spelling skills

What is the role of phonological awareness in the acquisition of literacy?

To recognize and manipulate phonemes

Why may standardized measures not accurately reflect the communication skills of older clients with ASD?

Due to structured contexts

What is the primary benefit of combining phonological awareness instruction with letter-sound correspondence instruction in reading and spelling development?

It improves reading and spelling skills more than other forms of reading readiness instruction

Which of the following is a characteristic of family-centered practice in the assessment of developing language clients?

It considers parents as a valid and reliable source of information about the child

What is the primary reason why standardized measures may not accurately reflect the communication skills of older clients with ASD?

The measures overestimate competence due to the support of structured contexts

What is the primary function of assessing functional communication in older clients with severe disabilities?

To consider the child's communication needs and abilities in important social environments

What is the primary goal of teaching phonological awareness in the acquisition of literacy?

To enable children to analyze words into component sounds

Which of the following is a characteristic of children during the developing language period?

They combine words into sentences

What is the main focus of child-centered approaches in language facilitation?

To follow the child's lead and focus on general communication

What is the role of the clinician in facilitative play?

To consequate and respond to the child's remarks

What is the advantage of child-centered approaches for obstinate children?

They allow the child to take the lead and focus on general communication

What is the purpose of linguistic mapping in child-centered approaches?

To give meaning to the child's actions and place them in a communicative context

What is an example of expansion in child-centered approaches?

Adding grammatical markers and semantic details to the child's words

What is the benefit of using self-talk, parallel talk, and imitations in child-centered approaches?

To facilitate the child's communication and language development

What is the purpose of Focused Stimulation in language development?

To encourage the child to produce a target form

What is the key characteristic of Vertical Structuring in language development?

The clinician expands the child's fragments into a complete utterance

What is the main goal of Milieu Communication Training in language development?

To encourage the child to produce target forms in everyday settings

What is the primary characteristic of Script Therapy in language development?

The clinician embeds language training in a familiar routine

What is the purpose of Clinician Directed activities in language development?

To produce a high number of target responses

What is the primary characteristic of Drill Play in language development?

The clinician provides motivation before and after the child responds

What is the purpose of Modeling in language development?

To provide a high density of models of the target form

What is the primary characteristic of Hybrid Approaches in language development?

The clinician maintains control in selecting activities and materials

What is the purpose of Cohesive Scripts in language development?

To provide a conversational format for script-based activities

What is the primary goal of Naturalistic modifications of Clinician Directed activities in language development?

To make Clinician Directed activities more natural and engaging

What is the primary role of the clinician in child-centered approaches?

To follow the child's lead and respond to their remarks

What is the purpose of responding to the child's behavior in a communicative context?

To give linguistic mapping to the child's actions

What is an advantage of using child-centered approaches for obstinate children?

They are more likely to initiate speech

What is the focus of child-centered approaches?

On general communication skills

What is the primary goal of using expansions in child-centered approaches?

To add more information to the child's utterance

What is the benefit of using child-centered approaches in daily activities?

They are more natural and spontaneous

What is the main goal of Hybrid Approaches in language development?

To target a small set of specific language goals

What is the primary characteristic of Focused Stimulation in language development?

The clinician arranges the context of the interaction, so the child is tempted to produce the target form

What is the purpose of Vertical Structuring in language development?

To respond to a child's incomplete utterance with a contingent question

What is the primary benefit of Milieu Communication Training in language development?

It uses child interest and initiation as opportunities for modeling and prompting communication

What is the primary characteristic of Script Therapy in language development?

It embeds the language training in the context of a familiar routine and then violates the script in some way

What is the purpose of Drill in language development?

To instruct the client what response is expected

What is the primary benefit of using Naturalistic modifications of Clinician Directed activities in language development?

It uses a more conversational format while engaging in a script

What is the primary goal of Modeling in language development?

To use a 3rd person model to provide numerous examples of the target form

What is the primary benefit of Cohesive Scripts in language development?

It uses a more conversational format while engaging in a script

What is the primary goal of Clinician Directed activities in language development?

To produce a higher number of target responses

What is the primary focus of the Individualized Education Program (IEP)?

Child's education needs

In which setting are birth-to-3 services typically provided?

Home or care setting

What is the primary goal of Transition Planning?

To transfer the responsibility for the child's education to local educational authorities

What is the purpose of Minimal Pairs in language development?

To target specific phonological processes

What is the role of the family in Individualized Education Program (IEP) team?

To participate as members of the IEP team

What is the benefit of family-centered practice in language development?

To involve the family in the intervention process

What is a primary goal of Clinician-Directed Method in language development for children with productive phonological problems during the DL period?

To develop phonological awareness

What is a characteristic of children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD)?

Difficulty with receptive language and slow development of first words

What is the purpose of Contrastive Syntax Drills in language development?

To enhance syntax and morphology skills

What is a key feature of Child-Centered Methods in language facilitation?

Contingent feedback and balanced turn-taking

Why are pragmatics important in language intervention?

To ensure targeted language forms are learned in practical contexts

What is the purpose of Mediated Parent-Child Interactions in language development?

To facilitate language development through parent-child interactions

What is the advantage of using Minimal Pairs in therapy?

It allows children to contrast letters that differ by various elements

What is the purpose of Maximal Oppositions in therapy?

To help children contrast letters that differ by multiple elements

What is the Cycles Approach used for?

Children who are highly unintelligible and use several phonological processes

What is the first step in a Cycles Approach session?

Review

What is the purpose of Auditory Bombardment in a Cycles Approach session?

To provide the child with intense and repeated exposure to the phonological targets

What is the goal of the Play step in a Cycles Approach session?

To achieve 100% accuracy in target word pronunciation

What is the purpose of the Probe step in a Cycles Approach session?

To determine the target sounds for the next session

What is included in the homework assigned as part of the Cycles Approach?

All of the above

What is the benefit of using Minimal Pairs in therapy?

It helps children to establish contrasts not present in their phonological system

What is the characteristic of Maximal Oppositions?

They differ by multiple elements including how a sound is made, where a sound is made, and the presence or absence of voice

What is the age range for which IDEA Part B mandates free, appropriate public education?

3-21 years

What is the primary focus of an Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP)?

Family's needs

In which setting are birth-to-3 services typically provided in most states?

Home or care setting

What is the purpose of Minimal Pairs in language development?

To help children hear the difference between words

Who is considered a member of the Individualized Education Program (IEP) team?

The child's family

What is the primary goal of Transition Planning?

To move a child from birth-to-3 services to local educational authorities

What is a challenge for children with productive phonological problems during the DL period?

Developing phonological awareness

What is the focus of syntactic and morphological targets of intervention during the DL period?

Enhancing language structure

What is the purpose of contrastive drills in language intervention?

To contrast target sounds

What is a characteristic of child-centered methods in language facilitation?

Use of contingent feedback

What is the benefit of using minimal pairs in language intervention?

Contrasting similar sounds

What is the primary goal of drill play games in language intervention?

To practice targeted language forms

What is the advantage of using Minimal Oppositions in therapy?

It helps children distinguish between similar sounds.

What is the purpose of the Cycles Approach in therapy?

To help children who use several phonological processes.

What is the difference between Minimal Oppositions and Maximal Oppositions?

Minimal Oppositions focus on one sound, while Maximal Oppositions focus on multiple sounds.

What is the goal of the Auditory Bombardment step in a Cycles Approach session?

To provide the child with intense and repeated exposure to phonological targets.

What is the role of the therapist in a Cycles Approach session?

To provide the child with correct models and tactile cues.

What is the purpose of the Probe step in a Cycles Approach session?

To determine the target sounds for the next session.

What is the characteristic of Maximal Oppositions?

They differ by multiple elements among sounds.

What is the purpose of the Homework step in a Cycles Approach session?

To practice the target words for 2 minutes every day.

What is the benefit of using Minimal Oppositions in therapy?

It helps children distinguish between similar sounds.

What is the purpose of the Structures of a Cycles Approach session?

To follow a specific structure in a therapy session.

What is the primary goal of Response to Intervention (RTI)?

To prevent reading and learning disabilities

What is the purpose of Tier 1 in the RTI model?

To provide high-quality, scientifically research-based classroom instruction for all students

What is the role of the SLP in the RTI process?

To support general education teachers in presenting Tier 1 instruction

What is the purpose of progress monitoring in RTI?

To track progress over time and identify goals for instruction

What is the purpose of Tier 2 in the RTI model?

To provide small-group instruction to students who lag behind peers

What is the purpose of Tier 3 in the RTI model?

To provide individualized instruction to students who continue to struggle after provision of Tier 2 support

What is the purpose of using checklists in RTI?

To case find in upper grades

What is the purpose of curriculum-based assessments in RTI?

To track progress over time and identify goals for instruction

What is the purpose of benchmark measures in RTI?

To evaluate performance in high-priority targets and identify goals for instruction

What is the purpose of dynamic assessment in RTI?

To provide diagnostic teaching to determine whether Tier 2 support is sufficient to overcome difficulty

What are the two main sets of components required for children to learn to read and write?

Comprehension and decoding

What is the primary goal of teaching metalinguistic, phonological awareness, and letter-sound correspondence skills?

To make better readers regardless of the source of reading difficulty

What is the role of the SLP in secondary curriculum?

To develop metacognitive strategies

What is the purpose of guiding principle 3 for SLPs?

To go meta and develop metacognitive skills

What is the focus of metalinguistic discussion in semantics?

Verbs with metalinguistic and metacognitive components

What is the purpose of incorporating metalinguistic discussion in reading instruction?

To teach students strategies for learning new words

What is the focus of metapragmatic discussion in pragmatics?

Using metacognitive strategies after reading

What is the purpose of assessing metacognitive skills in older clients with moderate to severe disabilities?

To identify deficits in self-regulation

What is the benefit of using metacognitive strategies in reading instruction?

Improves reading comprehension

What is the purpose of the sample intervention for metacognition?

To improve comprehension monitoring

What is the primary purpose of using comprehensive test batteries in language assessment?

To identify specific areas of language strengths and weaknesses

Why is it important to assess pragmatic language deficits in addition to semantic and syntactic deficits?

Because pragmatic deficits can have a significant impact on communication and social interaction

What is the primary benefit of involving families in the assessment process?

To provide families with a clearer understanding of the assessment process

What type of assessment is used to evaluate a student's ability to understand and use language in context?

Dynamic assessment

What is the primary purpose of analyzing a student's spontaneous speech sample?

To identify areas of language strengths and weaknesses

What is the primary benefit of assessing metacognitive skills in older clients with moderate to severe disabilities?

To evaluate a student's ability to reflect on their own thought processes

According to Fernald et al. 2013, SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident starting at what age?

18 months

LEAP’s emphasis on activities in the areas of interviewing, academic communication, and workforce connections:

Shows that these skills can be used by participants to communicate with teachers, potential employers, and college representatives

LEAP often includes teachers, adult mentors and coaches from schools and organizations as observers:

So that adult contacts within an agency know how to support the communication skills after LEAP has ended the program

Academic Business English:

All of the above

Which of the following is true about registers?

A register is a variation of language used during a specific social situation

When would teaching “go” be a good first word for a student?

When the student is active and wants to go somewhere

The speaker states that vocabulary that she teaches early on for students is:

User specific

What skill is good to have prior to transitioning to an iPad?

All of the above

In which phase of the PECS protocol do individuals typically master initiation, picture discrimination, and the ability to make some picture sentences?

Phase 4

The Participation Assessment Model for AAC consists of:

All of the above

Which statement is NOT included in planning with the participation level?

Participation assists in determining reading level

During reading, literacy learning activities should include:

All of the above

The Not-So-Simple View of Writing would include the following:

All of the above

Data collection during literacy activities:

All of the above

Generalization is defined as:

Teaching students to apply skills in different environments

An example of using multiple exemplars to plan for generalization is:

Teaching the label dog by showing a variety of pictures of different dogs

Using a variety of questions to ask a student to label an item (i.e. “What is happening in this picture?” “What are they doing?” “What action do you see?”) is an example of what generalization strategy discussed in the course?

Teaching loosely

When is it appropriate to take maintenance data on a therapy skill?

When the student has met criterion or mastered the skill

What is probe data?

Data taken on the first trial or the first time it is worked on

Which of the following best describes the relationship between language and literacy development in students who use AAC?

Language and literacy skills are inter-related, with robust language supporting the development of strong literacy skills

Discourse-rich intervention is:

Rich in context

Which of the following is a key component of explicit instruction in language intervention for students who use AAC?

All of the above

The role of visual supports in robust language intervention is:

Likely to support skill development

In applying explicit instruction to semantic intervention, which of the following is an indirect approach that benefits students who use AAC?

Focused language input

Study Notes

Finals Study Guide

Chapter 7 Assessment of Play Play and Gesture Assessment Certain gestural and play skills appear to be related to the development of intentions, first words, and word combinations Local homologies: relationships that occur at certain points in development (e.g., at the single word period, there is a strong relationship between the use of words as labels and the ability to demonstrate functional play) Play assessment: nonlinguistic comparison to language performance: sample methods Communication and symbolic play scale (Wetherby & Prizant, 2003) Play scale (Carpenter, 1987; Table 7-2) McCune (1995) assessment (Table 7-3) Assessing gestures Communication Development Inventory (Fenson et al., 2007) Communication and symbolic play scale (Wetherby & Prizant, 2003) Play scale items: Current level of symbolic behavior: Analyzes the highest level of play that the child exhibits spontaneously when given a standard set of toys

Play Scale Items Approximate Developmental Level Symbolic Play Level McCune (1995) & Nicolick (1977) Criteria <18 Months 1 Pre-symbolic scheme: Child shows understanding of convention object use or meaning by brief recognitory gestures No pretending; properties of present object are the stimulus; serious rather than playful 18-24 Months 2 Auto symbolic scheme: The child pretends at self-related activities Pretending is present; symbolism is directly involved with the child’s body; child appears playful, seems aware of pretending 24-36 Months 3 Single-scheme symbolic games: the child extends symbolism beyond own actions by including other agents or objects of actions Pretending activities of other people or objects, such as dogs, vehicles, so on 24-36 Months 4 Combinatorial symbolic games: 4a: Single-scheme combinations: one pretend scheme is related to several actors or pretend receivers of action 4b: Multi-scheme combinations: several schemes related to one another in a sequence 24-36 Months 5 Hierarchical Pretend: 5a: Planned single-act symbolic games: The child indicates verbally or nonverbally that pretend acts are planned before being execute 5b: Planned multi-scheme symbolic acts

Chapter 8: Assessment of Developing Language

Clients with Developing Language Communication developmentally appropriate for 3-5 year olds Expressive vocabulary larger than 50 words Combining words into sentences Yet to acquire all the basic sentence structures of the language Developing language period is analogous to Brown’s stage II-V of MLU development Older clients with moderate to severe impairments may also function at this stage Family-Centered Practice Served under Part B of IDEA Parents are partners in the assessment process Parental consent is required for assessment and intervention plan Includes families in deciding why, what, and how to assess each child Takes family’s concerns seriously Treats parents as a valid and reliable source of information about the child Respects parents’ decisions about child Considerations at the Developing Language Stage for the Older Clients with Severe Disabilities Assess functional communication (regardless of modality) in important social environments Consider AAC, and assess communication needs and abilities relative to alternative means Use age-appropriate materials and activities Assess functional efficacy of current communication, using Ecological inventory to assess the communicative needs in various environments Communication profile that lists forms and functions of current communicative behaviors Considerations at the Developing Language Stage for the Older Clients with ASD Standardized measures may overestimate competence in this population, due to support of structured contexts Parent report of adaptive use of communication can document gap between the strengths in language form and weaknesses in use Observations of peer interactions may reveal more about communicative difficulties than interactions with adults Phonological Awareness The Role of Oral Language in the Acquisition of Literacy Phonological awareness, or knowledge of the alphabetic principle, which allows children to Recognize individual words Break words down into component parts (syllable, onset, rimes) and sounds (phonemes) Learn letter-sound correspondence rules Analyze words into component sounds (for spelling) Synthesize sounds represented by letters into words (for reading) Direct teaching of phonological awareness and letter-sound correspondence improves reading and spelling more than other forms of reading readiness instruction The effects persist in an advantage in reading 4 years later Phonological awareness teaching works best when combined with instruction in letter-sound correspondence

Review - Evidence Based Practice Interventions Child-Centered Approaches Also called indirect language stimulation, language facilitation, facilitative play The clinician arranges an activity so that opportunities to produce the target responses occur as a natural part of play and interaction. No reinforcers, no requirements for a particular response, no prompts, BUT the clinician does consequate (follow up any child remarks in specific ways). Clinician DOES NOT direct the activity. We follow the child’s lead – doing what they are doing and playing with what they are playing with. Advantages: Good for obstinate child and unassertive child who rarely initiates speech Most natural Focuses on general communication Key to this is to respond to the child - This can be done in the context of daily activities Sometimes we have to interpret an action of the child’s as if it were communication. - we respond to the child’s behavior and place it in a communicative context and give it linguistic mapping. Can do this by using: Self talk Parallel talk Imitations – imitate what the child says- the child may imitate the imitation Expansion – take what the child says and add grammatical markers and semantic details “doggie house” (A) “The doggie is in the house.” Extensions – comments that add some info to what the child said (C)” Doggie house” (A) “Yes he went inside.” Build ups and breakdowns – “doggie house” (A) “Yes the doggie is in the house. The house. He’s in the house. In the house. The doggie is in the house.” Recast sentences – expand the child’s remark into a different type or more elaborated sentence. “doggie house” (A) “Is the doggie in the house?” Hybrid Approaches Target 1 or a small set of specific language goals Clinicians maintain a good deal of control in selecting activities and materials but does so in a way that tempts the child to make spontaneous use of the utterances being used. Clinicians use linguistic stimuli to respond to the child and to model and highlight the forms being targeted. Includes: Focused Stimulation – the clinician arranges the context of the interaction, so the child is tempted to produce the utterances being targeted. The clinician provides a high density of models of the target form in meaningful context -usually play. The child is not required to produce the target form- only tempted. (The cow is in the barn. The horse in in the barn. The dog is in the barn.) Vertical Structuring – The clinician responds to a child’s incomplete utterance with a contingent question. The child responds to the question with another fragmented response. The clinician takes the 2 fragments from the child and expands them into a complete utterance. (using a picture prompt) (A) “what do you see?” (c) “lion” (A) “Yes. And what is the lion doing?” (c) “roar” (A)” Yes. He’s roaring. The lion is roaring.” Milieu Communication Training – includes: Environmental arrangement Responsive interaction Conversation based contexts that use child interest and initiation as opportunities for modeling and prompting communication in everyday settings The clinician arranges the setting so that things the client wants, and needs are visible to the client but out of reach. The child picks the topic by looking in the direction of what he/she wants or by pointing. The clinician uses request or questions that give the child a limited choice for responses. Script Therapy – Embedding the language training in the context of a familiar routine and the script is violated in some way, prompting the child to communicate to call attention to or to repair the disruption. Clinician Directed Least natural; the clinician specifies the materials to be used, how the client will use them, the type and frequency of reinforcement, the form of response to be accepted as correct and the order of activities. These produce a higher number of target responses. Includes: Drill – most structured. The clinician instructs the client what response is expected. The clinician provides a stimulus or antecedent (show an object or picture for example) and the client provides a response to the clinician’s stimulus. If it is the response that the clinician wants, the client is rewarded with praise, a token, food…. Drill Play: Provides motivation in the drill structure with 2 motivating events – one before the client produces the form and one after the client produces the form. Modeling: Uses a 3rd person model. The child listens as the model provides numerous models of the structure being taught. For example, the clinician asks the parent “What’s happening here?” Parent says “The boy is drinking, The girl is reading, The cat is walking.” After many examples, the child is asked to “talk like Mommy.” Naturalistic modifications of Clinician directed activities i.e., Cohesive Scripts: using more of a conversational format while engaging in a script. For example, show each page of a book and say “Sam can put on his shoes. Sam can eat breakfast. Sam can get on the school bus.” “Tell me some things you can do during your school day.”

Levels of Naturalness

Intervention for Developing Language Chapter 9 Intervention Policy Issues at the Developing Language Level Individualized educational plans IDEA Part B mandates free, appropriate public education for children with disabilities 3-21 years of age Individualized Education Program (IEP) or Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP) may be used IEP focuses on the child’s education needs vs. IFSP which focuses on the family Intervention settings In most states birth-to-3 services are provided in the home or care setting When a child turns 3, the responsibility for his or her education moves to local educational authorities (TRANSITION PLANNING!) Family-centered practice The family is considered members of the IEP team Family must be notified of IEP meetings, which must be scheduled to allow them to attend Parents have the right to accept or reject suggested intervention goals and methods Evidence Based Interventions for Developing Language Drill-Minimal Pairs Minimal Pairs consists of two words that differ in pronunciation by only one sound or feature that ultimately changes the meaning of a word. For example, if the phonological process you are targeting is final consonant deletion, one of the minimal pairs presented in therapy could be “bee” and “beep.” First children must learn to hear the difference between the two words, and then learn to say them. Implications: Using Minimal Pairs allows the therapist to take advantage of different meanings that exist when a child pronounces both “bee” and “beep” as “bee” or “tie” and “dye” as “tie.” The pairs presented contain one sound that the child is able to produce and a target sound. In addition, the therapist can focus on key elements such as place of articulation, the presence or absence of voice, and how a sound is made. Drill - Maximal or Minimal Oppositions Maximal Oppositions are pairs of words that differ by multiple elements among sounds. For example, one treatment set that could be presented in therapy is “my” and “dye,” where the initial consonant differs in where and how it is made. When developing their speech, children focus on the wide differences between sounds. Uses pairs of words containing a contrastive sound that is maximally distinct and varies on multiple dimensions (e.g., voice, place, and manner) to teach an unknown sound. For example, "mall" and "call" are maximal pairs because /m/ and /k/ vary on more than one dimension—/m/ is a bilabial voiced nasal, whereas /k/ is a velar voiceless stop (Gierut, 1989, 1990, 1992). See Place, Manner and Voicing Chart for English Consonants (Roth & Worthington, 2018). Implications: This approach gives them the opportunity to contrast letters that differ by various elements including how a sound is made, where a sound is made, and the presence or absence of voice at the same time. The pairs presented contain one sound that the child is familiar with and a target sound. Minimal Oppositions (also known as "minimal pairs" therapy)—uses pairs of words that differ by only one phoneme or single feature signaling a change in meaning. Minimal pairs are used to help establish contrasts not present in the child's phonological system (e.g., "door" vs. "sore," "pot" vs. "spot," "key" vs. "tea"; Blache, Parsons, & Humphreys, 1981; Weiner, 1981). Cycles Approach The cycles approach may be used for children who meet the following criteria: Highly unintelligible (difficult to understand) Frequently omit or leave out sounds Replace some sounds with other sounds Don’t use very many consonant sounds Meant for children who use several different phonological processes, or error patterns. Each process, or pattern, is targeted for a short amount of time, and then therapy cycles through the other processes. For example, the first process to be targeted in therapy may be initial consonant deletion, which might last for 6 weeks. Therapy would then cycle on to target fronting (when sounds like K and G, which are made in the back of the mouth, are replaced with sounds like T and D, which are made in the front of the mouth) for 6 weeks. When all processes have been targeted in therapy, the cycles start over again until each process is eliminated from the child’s speech. Structures of a Cycles Approach Session Review: The target words used in the previous session are reviewed. Auditory Bombardment: For 1-2 minutes, the therapist reads words that contain the target pattern for the current session. This provides the child with intense and repeated exposure to the phonological targets. Target Words: The child is given an activity to introduce the 3-6 words that will be used during the session and repeats the words after they are modeled by the therapist. Play: While playing games, the child takes turns practicing the target words while the therapist provides correct models and tactile cues. The child should achieve 100% accuracy during this step. Probe: The therapist asks the child to say a list of words that contain the target pattern for the next session. This will determine the target sounds for the next session (whichever sound is easiest for the child will be targeted). Auditory Bombardment: Repeat step 2. Homework: This will consist of 2 minutes of auditory bombardment by a parent or adult every day. It may also include a list of target words for the child to practice every day. Clinician-Directed Method Phonology Children with productive phonological problems during the DL period may have trouble acquiring phonological awareness placing them at risk for reading problems Articulation drills Contrastive drills Minimal pairs Drill/drill play Semantics Computer games and apps for vocabulary drills Drill play games (bingo, concentration, etc.) Children with DLD have difficulty with receptive language and are slow to develop first words Difficulty with words to talk about cognitive states, verb vocabulary, and prepositions Syntax/morphology Syntactic and morphological targets of intervention are obvious goals of the DL period Many children with grammatical deficits also have speech intelligibility issues, small vocabularies, word-finding problems, limited pre literacy skills, or difficulties with play, thinking, and conceptual development There are some typical patterns of grammatical deficits Comprehension vs. production targets Elicit production, but enhanced input; don’t wait until discrimination is achieved to begin work on production ABA approaches (e.g., teach me language; verbal behavior) Contrastive syntax drills Pragmatics Context in which intervention takes places Make sure targeted language forms are learned and practiced in pragmatic contexts Child-Centered Methods Language Facilitation Characteristics Contingent feedback: Example of contingent feedback: Student does task, teacher. gives reward. Examples of non-contingent feedback: Teacher positively recognizes students without an antecedent behavior. Balanced turn-taking: taking a turn with you in a game or while eating, getting dressed, or getting in the car gives them an opportunity to engage with you and gives them a role in the interaction Extension of child’s topic Reduced rate of speech Strategies Modeling Expansions Recasts Imitation Methods Demonstration Coaching Role-plays Mediated parent-child interactions Video recorded examples Written materials Specific instructional feedback

Language for Learning Period Chapters 11-14 Response to Intervention Responsiveness to intervention (RTI) may be one means of identifying students who struggle with curricular demands Screen at risk populations In special education classes Receiving remedial reading instruction Students with behavioral and/or social difficulties At-risk for dropping out Prevention, identification, and referral under responsiveness to intervention (RTI) Pre-referral model that attempts to resolve learning problems within the regular education setting, providing classroom modifications and accommodations that can prevent the need for special education Three-tiered approach Tier 1: High-quality, scientifically research-based classroom instruction for all students in general education, with ongoing progress monitoring Tier 2: Students who lag behind peers receive small-group instruction to prevent failure within general education Tier 3: For students who continue to struggle after provision of Tier 2 support, individualized instruction may be provided If adequate progress is not made, comprehensive evaluation is conducted to determine eligibility for special education Aim: to prevent reading and learning disability Since use of RTI to prevent school failure and reduce the number of students identified for special education is relatively new, there is not a lot of hard evidence to determine whether those who fail to make progress in RTI have LLD If RTI is designed to separate children who just need a bit of extra help from those with biologically based learning disabilities, we would expect that children who can keep up with grade expectations given only the limited Tier 2 and 3 provide would not have a bona fide learning disability RTI provides the SLP opportunity to support not only those children with identified disabilities, but to use our knowledge of language across modalities to serve a broad range of children who struggle to read SLP role in RTI Participating in the design of Tier 1 instruction by Planning and conducting professional development on the language basis of literacy Helping to select scientifically based literacy instruction programs Choosing appropriate screening and progress-monitoring approaches Collaborating with general education teachers in presenting Tier 1 instruction Assisting with ongoing progress monitoring Helping teachers develop accommodations within Tier 1 for struggling students Providing or planning small-group and individual instruction at Tiers 2 and 3 Conducting assessments to identify struggling students and monitor progress RTI and referral Children may be referred after going through Tiers 1-2 of RTI process Checklists, particularly those including pragmatically oriented items, are useful for case finding in upper grades Progress Monitoring in RTI Classrooms May include: Scientifically based literacy instruction at Tier 1 More intensive small-group work at Tier 2 Monitoring of process within tiers with commercial reading assessments Benchmark measures to evaluate performance in high-priority targets (e.g., phonological awareness) and identify goals for instruction Curriculum-based assessments: used to track progress over time and to identify children with slow rates of growth in curricular skills Progress monitored in BOTH Tiers 1 and 2 Tier 2 is a form of dynamic assessment: provides diagnostic teaching to determine whether it is sufficient to overcome difficulty Do you think the child is eligible for services? Requires more intensive assessment than is done through RTI progress monitoring alone But data from progress monitoring can be considered as part of the eligibility determination process Observational data Criterion referenced information Meta-Skills Language, Learning, and Reading… What’s the Connection? The role of oral language in classroom discourse Teacher talk and the hidden curriculum Decontextualized language Classrooms and culture clash Metalinguistic skills Metacognitive skills, self-regulation, and executive function What does it take to learn to read? There are two main sets of components (strands) that need to be integrated for children to learn to read and write (Scarborough, 2003) Comprehension: The first includes knowledge of basic vocabulary and syntax, world knowledge, high-level language skills such as verbal reasoning and metalinguistics, basic knowledge of print concepts, conventions, and story schemas Decoding: The second strand includes skills that will support word recognition such as phonological awareness, letter-sound knowledge, fluent and automatic recognition of an increasingly large vocabulary of sight words Teaching metalinguistic, phonological awareness, and letter-sound correspondence skills explicitly and providing practice so these skills can become automatized in word recognition activities make better readers regardless of the source of the reading difficulty The Meta’s Metalinguistic awareness Metacognitive skills Self-regulation Planning abilities Problem-solving strategies Persistence in a goal Flexibility in switching from tasks Attention span Memory or recall Working memory Organization Time management Theory of mind Meta Development in Adolescence Semantics: Verbs with presuppositional, metalinguistic, and metacognitive components Pragmatics: formal operational thought extends capacity to allow for a greater range of metacognitive activities Assessing Meta- and Functional Communication The Meta’s Metalinguistics Metapragmatics Comprehension monitoring Metacognition Functional communication Community-referenced assessments Guiding Principles for SLPs Principle 1: Use curriculum based-assessment Principle 2: Integrate oral and written language Principle 3: Go meta Principle 4: Collaborate to prevent school failure by participating in RTI, incorporating principles 1-2 The role of the SLP in secondary curriculum involves developing metacognitive strategies Use metalinguistic and metacognitive discussion Purpose of intervention at the advanced language level: teaches “meta”-level ability Principle 3 as it relates to meta skills: Semantics: Use metacognitive approach to teach students strategies for learning new words Metalinguistic discussion of words and their meanings Integrate with spelling Discourse: Metalinguistic discussion of structure of classroom scripts Pragmatics: use metacognitive strategies after reading Considerations for older clients with moderate to severe disabilities and those with ASD Address self-regulation deficits with metacognitive strategies Processes of Intervention: Focus on the Metas Learning strategies approaches Self-regulation Repetitive routines Contextualized activities Positive results Verbal meditation Self-talk Metacognition Encourage reflection and evaluation of activities Encourage self-questioning Use revision in writing as an exercise in metacognition Sample Intervention for Metalinguistics Incorporate with fluency practice Paraphrase and rewrite classroom texts, with metalinguistic discussion Use editing as a context for metalinguistic activities Focus attention on sound structure of words in spelling instruction Sample Intervention for Metacognition Comprehension monitoring Organization and learning strategies Create inferential sets Self-questioning Think aloud Reciprocal teaching Buddy study Graphic organizers Sensory imaging Assessment during Language for Learning Period Using Standardized Tests Use of standardized tests is usually considered part of the set of requirements for eligibility for speech-language services at school Documents that student is significantly below others; may form part of the eligibility assessment Comprehensive test batteries are often used to identify broad areas of strengths and needs Important to assess pragmatic as well as semantic/syntactic language deficits Standard tests of pragmatics may need to be supplemented with more informal measures Tests can also be used to assess oral language foundations for literacy, such as tests of phonological awareness or word finding Pieces of the Assessment Puzzle Families need to be involved in each stage of the assessment process Contact parents as soon as the referral is made Provide families with a case manager Involve student in planning assessment Explain what to expect Answer student’s questions Ask student to talk about troubles/strengths in school; ask what the student would like to improve Discussion can provide conversational sample as well as information for planning assessment Phonology Examine more demanding tasks, such as producing complex words Examine phonological awareness Tests (Appendix 11-3) Data from RTI process Curriculum-based assessment Non-word repetition Rapid automatized naming Semantic Receptive vocabulary Instructional vocabulary Textbook vocabulary Expressive vocabulary Lexical diversity Word retrieval Quick incidental learning (fast mapping) Semantic relations between clauses Receptive Syntax and Morphology Methods for assessing decontextualized language: Judgment of semantic acceptability Judgment of appropriate intervention Methods for assessing contextualized syntax Assessing comprehension strategies Assessing classroom comprehension Expressive Syntax and Morphology Analyze sample of spontaneous speech Issues in sample collection Issues in transcription Analyzing speech samples T-unit length Syntactic/morphological forms Error analysis Complex sentence analysis Analyzing disruptions Pragmatics Conversational language Communicative intentions Register variation Presupposition Discourse management Narratives Comprehension and inference Narrative production (personal narratives, script narratives, fictional narratives) Macrostructure Cohesion Microstructure Assessing written narrative Assessing “artful” storytelling Richness of the vocabulary Complexity of the episodes in story Creation of “high point” Use of literate language style Episode complexity Multiple episodes Complex episodes Embedded episodes Interactive episodes The Meta’s Assess metalinguistic awareness and metacognitive skills Curriculum-Based Language Assessment Artifact awareness (portfolio assessment, functional assessment) Onlooker observation Dynamic assessment (participant observation) Diagnostic teaching Successive cueing Mediated learning

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