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Chapter 6: Get Beyond Learning Styles

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What is the primary challenge that psychologists have faced in measuring intelligence?

Defining and measuring intelligence in a way that accounts for people's intellectual horsepower and provides a fair indicator of their potential

How many kinds of intelligence do psychologists today generally accept that individuals possess?

At least two

What is the main function of fluid intelligence?

Reasoning, seeing relationships, thinking abstractly, and holding information in mind while working on a problem

What is crystallized intelligence composed of?

Accumulated knowledge of the world and the procedures or mental models developed from past learning and experience

What is the significance of psychologists' efforts to measure intelligence?

To provide a fair indicator of an individual's potential

How long has the problem of measuring intelligence been debated among psychologists?

Over a hundred years

What is the relationship between fluid intelligence and learning?

Fluid intelligence enables individuals to process and understand new information

What is the significance of the distinction between fluid and crystallized intelligence in understanding human cognitive development?

It highlights the importance of both innate abilities and learned knowledge in shaping an individual's cognitive potential.

What is the primary characteristic of Linguistic intelligence, as proposed by Gardner?

ability to work with words and languages

What is the primary characteristic of Interpersonal intelligence, as proposed by Gardner?

ability to 'read' other people and work with them effectively

What is the primary characteristic of Intrapersonal intelligence, as proposed by Gardner?

ability to understand one's self and make accurate judgments of one's knowledge, abilities, and effectiveness

What is the primary characteristic of Naturalistic intelligence, as proposed by Gardner?

ability to discriminate and relate to one's natural surroundings

According to Sternberg, what is the limitation of traditional measures of intelligence?

They are static measures that only tell us about what we know at a given moment, but not about our potential.

How does Sternberg's view of intelligence as a developing expertise challenge traditional notions of intelligence?

It suggests that intelligence is not fixed, but rather can be developed and improved over time, and that traditional measures underestimate an individual's potential.

What is the significance of the structure of a village, and how does it relate to the concept of mastery?

The structure of a village represents the interconnected nature of its components, which gives it a life and significance beyond its individual parts. Similarly, mastering a subject involves understanding the underlying structure and rules that govern it.

What is the difference between knowledge and know-how, and how does structure relate to this distinction?

Knowledge refers to the acquisition of information, while know-how refers to the application of that knowledge to achieve a goal. Structure, as understood through metaphors like the village, enables the transformation of knowledge into know-how.

How does the author suggest building a structure of underlying principles, and what is the benefit of doing so?

The author suggests building a structure by identifying the central ideas, rules, and supporting concepts, and then creating a framework or metaphor to hold these ideas together. The benefit of doing so is that it enables mastery and know-how, going beyond mere knowledge.

What is the importance of recognizing and addressing 'holes' in one's aptitudes, and how can this be achieved?

Recognizing and addressing 'holes' in one's aptitudes is important because it enables individuals to develop workarounds and compensating skills, leading to greater achievement. This can be achieved through quizzing, peer review, and other tools that help individuals accurately assess their knowledge and abilities.

What is the significance of exemplars in learning, and how can they be used to build a structure of underlying principles?

Exemplars are significant in learning because they can be used to identify underlying principles and rules. By studying multiple exemplars and identifying their similarities and differences, individuals can build a structure of underlying principles and rules.

What is the relationship between structure and mastery, and how does the author illustrate this concept through metaphor?

The author suggests that structure is essential for mastery, as it enables individuals to build a framework of underlying principles and rules. The author illustrates this concept through metaphors such as the winding stair and the village, which show how structure enables interconnectedness and significance.

Explore the inspiring story of Bruce Hendry, a self-made individual who rose to success despite his humble beginnings. Learn how he defied conventional norms and achieved greatness. This quiz delves into his journey and its significance in understanding learning styles.

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