# Science EOQ 4 Exam 2023-2024

SeasonedPluto
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## 70 Questions

2000 j

150,000j

100 j

3,500 j

35,000 j

75 j

4N left

2N left

True

False

False

True

True

True

False

False

True

Observing

Inferring

Predicting

Classifying

Measuring

Experimenting

Analyzing data

### Using the information gained to try to explain or understand something. Figuring out what the patterns mean.

Interpreting Data:

Friction

Inertia

Speed

Velocity

Acceleration

Motion

### Models are used to study things that are too big, too small, too distant, or too complicated to study through direct observations. Which is NOT a model?

a list of supplies in a science lab

Transmit

Reflect

Absorb

Refract

Wavelength

Trough

Amplitude

Crest

Microwave

Gamma

4

A

D

### What are the forces that work against inertia?

Friction and Gravity

Mass

Repetition

Replication

### If A scientist wants to ensure their results are reliable, what should they focus on?

Consistent repetition

### What does a Scientific Law do?

State what will always occur in natural conditions.

### What is a hypothesis?

A statement that can be tested

### What is the difference between a scientifc law and a scientific theory?

Laws only state what will happen, theories axplain why something will happen.

### Why do scientists develop a hypothesis before they conduct their experiments?

It helps predict outcomes and design the experiment.

it is opaque

### A green house is made of a special plastic. The plastic allows some light through but everything inside appears blurry. What word below describes the green house?

It is translucent

Mechanical waves

### These are the only waves that can travel without passing through a medium.

Electromagnetic waves

### When we see a straw in a glass of water it may look broken or bent. Why does this occur?

The light is refracted

### John shines a white light on a box. When he does the box appears green. Why does this happen?

The box reflects the green color

Static friction

Fluid friction

### In an experiment scientist test a hypothesis. They can only test one thing at a time. What do we call the one thing they are testing/manipulating?

Independent variable

### For scientists to get valid results they can only test one thing at a time. This means they have to keep everything else exactly the same/constant. What do we call all the things kept the same?

Controlled variable

Control group

### What does the Law of Conservation of Energy state? (You MUST state all parts.)

Energy is never created or destroyed. It can only be transfered to a new place or transformed into a different type.

### Explain why sound cannot travel in a vacuum .

Sound is a mechanical wave. It needs matter/medium to transfer energy.

### John wants to conduct an investigation to see if the angle light is reflected increases the temperature on the object it is reflected on. He has on mirror straight up. The second he changes to an 80 degree angle, another is placed at a 70 degree angle the last one is place at a 65 degree angle. He then shines a heat lamp on each and records the temperature on the object below after 5 minutes. What is the independent variable and what is the dependent variable?

the independent variable is the angle of the light. The dependent variable is the temperature of the object.

### List the steps of the scientific method in order. Omit the 7th step communication.

1. Identify the problem/question.
2. Background research
3. Create a hypothesis.
4. Experiment
5. Analyze data
6. Interpret data and make conclusion

### How are speed and velocity alike? How are the 2 different.

Speed and velocity both tell how fast an object moves. Velocity also includes the direction the object is traveling in.

## Study Notes

### Work and Energy

• Gabrielle does 2000 J of work when she pulls a toy car 10 meters with a force of 200 N.
• Jack does 150000 J of work when he drags a shopping bag for 1000 meters with a force of 150 N.
• A 5 kg cat gains 100 J of gravitational potential energy (GPE) when lifted 2 meters into the air.
• A 70 kg box gains 3500 J of GPE when lifted 5 meters into the air.
• An angry bull with a mass of 700 kg has 35000 J of kinetic energy when running at 10 m/s.
• A waddling armadillo with a mass of 6 kg has 45 J of kinetic energy when moving at 5 m/s.

### Forces and Friction

• Friction is a contact force that opposes motion between objects that are in contact.
• Tension is a contact force.
• Gravity is a non-contact force.
• Air resistance is a contact force.
• Magnetism is a non-contact force.

### Science and Investigation

• Observation involves using the 5 senses to learn more about something.
• Inference involves forming an idea of why something happened in the past based on observations.
• Prediction involves forming an idea of what will happen in the future based on observations.
• Classification involves organizing or separating things by how they are alike or different.
• Measurement involves finding the size, mass, volume, distance, weight, or temperature of anything.
• Experimentation involves conducting controlled tests to determine if a hypothesis is correct.
• Data analysis involves looking at the data and finding patterns.
• Explanation involves using the information gained to try to explain or understand something.

### Models and Waves

• Models are used to study things that are too big, too small, too distant, or too complicated to study through direct observations.
• Light can travel in different ways, including reflection, refraction, and diffraction.

### Waves and Electromagnetic Spectrum

• The electromagnetic spectrum includes different types of waves, including gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet light, visible light, infrared light, microwaves, and radio waves.
• Visible light is located at position 5 on the electromagnetic spectrum.

### Inertia and Energy

• Inertia is an object's resistance to changes in motion.
• The forces that work against inertia are friction, air resistance, and gravity.
• The amount of inertia an object has is determined by its mass.
• Kinetic energy is the energy of motion.
• Potential energy is stored energy.

### Scientific Method

• The scientific method involves repeating an experiment several times to get the same results.
• Repeating another scientist's experiment to see if the first results are valid is called replication.
• Ensuring reliable results involves focusing on the controlled variables and the independent variable.
• A scientific law describes a consistent pattern in nature.
• A hypothesis is an educated guess that can be tested.
• A scientific theory is a well-substantiated explanation for a set of phenomena.
• Scientists develop a hypothesis before conducting experiments to guide their investigation.

### Light and Optics

• When light passes through a medium, it can be refracted, or bent.
• Total internal reflection occurs when light hits a surface at a shallow angle and bounces back.
• John shines a light on a piece of plastic, and none of the light passes through, indicating that the plastic is opaque.
• A green house made of special plastic allows some light through, but everything inside appears blurry, indicating that the plastic is translucent.

### Friction and Forces

• Static friction is the force that prevents an object from moving when a force is applied.
• Kinetic friction is the force that slows down an object that is already moving.
• Friction is necessary for an object to stop or change direction.

### Independent and Dependent Variables

• The independent variable is the one thing being tested or manipulated in an experiment.
• The dependent variable is the thing being measured or observed in response to the independent variable.
• The controlled variables are the things kept the same to ensure a fair test.

### Law of Conservation of Energy

• The Law of Conservation of Energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only converted from one form to another.

Students will be assessed on all materials studied during quarters 3 and 4.

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