Water Supply Engineering-I: Population Estimation and Water Demand

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What is the demand of water for nursing homes, boarding schools, and hostels?

135 lpcd

What is the total demand of average Indian town with full flushing system?

Domestic

What is the total demand of average Indian town without full flushing system?

Public use (5–10%)

What is the demand of water for offices?

40 to 90 lpcd

What is the demand of water for bus and railway stations, airport?

70 lpcd

What is the general fire demand as a percentage of the total demand of the city?

5–10%

What is the formula to calculate fire demand as per Kuichling’s formula?

Q = 3182 * P

According to the information provided, what does Freeman’s formula express?

The relationship between population and demand

What is the impact of higher standard of living on fire demand according to the text?

It increases the demand for fire

What is the maximum hourly consumption as a percentage of the average daily consumption according to the text?

150%

How does the quality of water impact fire demand?

Higher quality water increases demand

What is the provision of liters per head per day for fire fighting in Indian conditions?

1 liter per head per day

What is the formula for fire demand according to National board of fire under writers formula?

$Q = 4637 * P (1 - 0.01 * P)$

What does the design period refer to in the context of water supply scheme?

The future period provision made in the water supply scheme

What is the maximum monthly consumption as a percentage of the annual average daily rate of demand?

$140$%

According to the information provided, what does National board of fire under writers formula include?

$P$ (Population)

Study Notes

  • This chapter focuses on population estimation and methods of meeting water demand for water work projects.
  • To determine water demand, population and usage rates need to be considered.
  • Population forecasting is crucial for designing water supply projects, and the required water demand varies based on the type of building. For example:
    • Nursing homes, boarding schools, and hostels: 135 liters per capita per day (lpcd).
    • Offices: 40-90 lpcd.
    • Day schools: 40-90 lpcd.
    • Residential schools: 135-225 lpcd.
  • Water demand for hotels is 180 liters per bed, and for hospitals with 100 beds, it is 450 liters per day.
  • Public use, losses, and theft account for 5-20% of total demand.
  • Fire demand can be calculated using various empirical formulae, such as Kuichling's, Buston's, Freeman's, and National board of fire under writers formula.
    • Kuichling's formula: Q = 3182P.
    • Buston's formula: Q = 5663P.
    • Freeman's formula: Q = 1136 + 10P where F = number of simultaneous fire streams.
  • A city population of 200,000 using various formulae will have the following results:
    • Kuichling's formula: 3182 * 200 = 636,400 lit/min.
    • Buston's formula: 5663 * 200 = 11,326,000 lit/min.
    • Freeman's formula: 1136 + 10 * 200 = 34,080 lit/min.
    • National board of fire under writers formula: 4637 * 200 (1 - 0.01 * 200) = 56,303 lit/min.
  • Various factors affect the rate of water demand, including:
    • Size and type of community.
    • Standard of living.
    • Climatic conditions.
    • Quality of water.
    • Pressure in supply.
    • System of supply.
    • Sewerage system.
    • Water rates.
    • Age of community and lawn sprinkling.
  • The maximum water consumption rates are as follows:
    • Maximum seasonal consumption: 130% of annual average daily rate.
    • Maximum monthly consumption: 140% of annual average daily rate.
    • Maximum daily consumption: 180% of annual average daily consumption.
    • Maximum hourly consumption: 150% of average for the day.
  • The design period for a water supply scheme can be up to 50 years for dams and other components.

This quiz covers the highlights of Chapter 1 of Water Supply Engineering-I, including the introduction, sources and conveyance of water, population forecasting, and water demand. It focuses on population estimation, methods of meeting water demand, and the determination of water quantity required daily for industrial and commercial purposes.

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