## 11 Questions

Which operation results in a new vector showing the orthogonal component of the original vectors?

Cross Product

In how many dimensions does the cross product formally require?

Three dimensions

What is another term commonly used for vector magnitude?

Norm

What mathematical operation determines the magnitude of a vector?

Square Root

Which type of distance formula is used in calculating Euclidean distances associated with specific vectors?

Euclidean distance formula

What is the result of adding vector \( \ ext{A} = (3, -7, 9) \) and vector \( \ ext{B} = (-8, 4, 2) \)?

(-5, -3, 11)

Which property applies to the dot product operation involving vectors?

Commutative

What is the geometric interpretation of the dot product between two vectors?

Cosine of the angle between them

In vector algebra, what is the result of a dot product operation?

A scalar value

Which property does vector addition satisfy?

Commutative

What is the primary difference between vector addition and the dot product operation?

Vector addition yields a vector result, while dot product yields a scalar result.

## Study Notes

## Vector Algebra Fundamentals

In this exploration of *Vector Algebra*, we'll delve into some essential operations performed on vectors—the mathematical entities that represent quantities with both direction and magnitude. We'll cover four primary concepts: vector addition, dot product, cross product, and vector magnitude.

### Vector Addition

The sum of two vectors can be found by adding their corresponding components along each axis (x, y, z) using Pythagorean theorem rules. For example, if (\vec{A}) = (3, -7, 9), and (\vec{B}) = (-8, 4, 2), then (\vec{C}) = (\vec{A} + \vec{B}) = (1+(-8), -7+(4), 9+(2)) = (-7, -3, 11). Vector addition follows the commutative property ((\vec{A} + \vec{B}) = (\vec{B} + \vec{A})), distributive law, and associativity (((\vec{A} + \vec{B}) + \vec{C}) = (\vec{A} + (\vec{B} + \vec{C}))).

### Dot Product

The dot product of two vectors is calculated by multiplying their respective components along each axis and then summing these products. This operation only considers the magnitudes and directions of the vectors and yields a scalar result. It obeys certain properties such as being commutative ((\vec{A} · \vec{B}) = (\vec{B} · \vec{A})), linearity ((\alpha\cdot (\vec{A} · \vec{B})) = ((\alpha·\vec{A})\cdot \vec{B}) and ((\vec{A}+\vec{D})·\vec{B}=\vec{A}·\vec{B}+ \vec{D}·\vec{B})), and having geometric interpretation revealed through its relationship with cosine of angle between them.

### Cross Product

Unlike the other operations discussed, the cross product results in a new vector which illustrates the orthogonal component of the original vectors. Formally, it requires three dimensions, so one doesn't exist in two spatial dimensions. To find the cross product of (\vec{A}) and (\vec{B}), (\vec{C}) = (\vec{A} × \vec{B}) = (A_y * B_z - A_z * B_y, A_z * B_x - A_x * B_z, A_x * B_y - A_y * B_x). The cross product has applications in areas like mechanics and geometry because it enables finding normal vectors, area calculation, and determining right-handed coordinate systems.

### Vector Magnitude

Also known as length, norm, modulus, size, or magnitude, this value signifies how far a vector travels from the origin when stretched out to its end. Mathematically speaking, this quantity equals (||\vec{v}||) = (\sqrt{\vec{a}^2 + \vec{b}^2 + ... }). In simpler terms, finding magnitude involves taking square roots of the sums of squares of all coordinates. Some common formulas used in calculating different types of lengths associated with specific vectors are Euclidean distance formula, Manhattan distance formula, Chessboard distance formula, and Taxicab distance formula.

These four fundamental aspects of Vector Algebra will help you navigate the world of physics, engineering, computer science, architecture, among many others! By mastering these principles, you open yourself up to countless opportunities across various fields where mathematics meets real-world problems.

Test your understanding of vector algebra fundamentals through this quiz covering vector addition, dot product, cross product, and vector magnitude. Explore the properties, calculations, and applications of these essential operations in mathematics and various fields like physics, engineering, and computer science.

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