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Quiz 9

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Justine C.
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10 Questions

How do retroviruses work?

they carry RNA that is transcribed into DNA for genomic integration using reverse transcriptase

A mutation in the ___________ of the gene encoding the enzyme lactase enables expression of this gene in adults.

regulatory sequence

A SNP is________.

a single nucleotide polymorphism which causes slighlty different traits in individuals.

Which of the following mechanisms for genetic change involves the acquisition of genetic material from another organism?

horizontal transfer

What is a defining difference between viruses and mobile genetic elements?

Viruses can leave the cell and move to other cells and organisms; mobile genetic elements generally just move around the genome within in a cell.

Germline mutations that are deleterious are likely to

be lost from a population.

The total size of the human genome is approximately ___________ base pairs.

3.2 billion

How do gene duplications arise?

DNA replication causes misalignment of repetitive sequences which then leads to unequal crossing over

A relatively small number of ________gave rise to eukaryotic protein diversity.

exons

Mobile genetic elements_______.

encode the components they need for movement

Study Notes

Retroviruses and Genetic Elements

  • Retroviruses work by inserting their genetic material into the host genome, allowing them to replicate and propagate
  • A mutation in the promoter of the gene encoding the enzyme lactase enables its expression in adults

SNPs and Genetic Change

  • A SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) is a variation in a single nucleotide in a genome
  • Horizontal gene transfer, where genetic material is acquired from another organism, is a mechanism for genetic change
  • This process involves the direct transfer of genetic material between organisms other than by vertical inheritance

Viruses vs Mobile Genetic Elements

  • A key difference between viruses and mobile genetic elements is that viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that require a host cell to replicate, whereas mobile genetic elements can move within a genome without the need for a host

Germline Mutations

  • Deleterious germline mutations are likely to reduce an individual's fitness and may be selected against

Human Genome

  • The total size of the human genome is approximately 3.2 billion base pairs

Gene Duplications

  • Gene duplications arise through errors during DNA replication, such as unequal crossing over or duplication of a segment of DNA
  • These duplications can provide the raw material for the evolution of new genes and proteins

Eukaryotic Protein Diversity

  • A relatively small number of domain combinations gave rise to eukaryotic protein diversity

Mobile Genetic Elements

  • Mobile genetic elements, such as transposons, can move around a genome, influencing gene expression and contributing to genetic variation

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