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Linux में permissions किस तीन levels पर set किए जा सकते हैं?

Read, Write, Execute

कौन-कौन से tools real-time system activity monitoring के लिए Linux में available हैं?

top, htop

नेटवर्क connections की जानकारी प्रदान करने वाला command क्या है?

netstat

Linux में process management के लिए किस command का उपयोग किया जाता है?

ps और kill

Linux में network interfaces configure करने के लिए कौन-कौन से utilities हैं?

ifconfig, ip

लिनक्स क्या है और इसका महत्व क्या है?

लिनक्स एक शक्तिशाली और बहुमुखी परिवार है जो ओपन-सोर्स ऑपरेटिंग सिस्टम है, जिसे पहले लिनस टोरवाल्ड्स ने विकसित किया था।

शेल स्क्रिप्टिंग क्या है और इसका उपयोग क्यों किया जाता है?

शेल स्क्रिप्टिंग टास्क को स्वचालित करने या नये उपकरण बनाने की कला है जो लिनक्स कमांड लाइन वातावरण के भीतर चलते हैं।

लिनक्स किस प्रकार के फ़ाइल सिस्टम का उपयोग करता है?

लिनक्स विभिन्न फ़ाइल सिस्टम का उपयोग डेटा को संगठित और प्रबंधित करने के लिए करता है।

प्रक्रिया प्रबंधन क्या है और इसका महत्व क्या है?

प्रक्रिया प्रबंधन लिनक्स के भीतर प्रोग्राम और टास्क का निष्पादन संभालता है।

इनिट प्रक्रिया क्या है और इसका क्या कार्य है?

इनिट प्रक्रिया, जो लिनक्स सिस्टम पर चलने वाली पहली प्रक्रिया है, सभी अन्य प्रक्रियाओं का प्रबंधन करती है।

Study Notes

Exploring Linux Operating Systems: Shell Scripting, File System, Process Management, User Permissions, and Network Configuration

Linux is a powerful and versatile family of open-source operating systems, initially developed by Linus Torvalds. With its roots in Unix, Linux is widely used in servers, desktops, and embedded devices. This article delves into the intricacies of Linux, focusing on vital topics such as shell scripting, file systems, process management, user permissions, and network configuration.

Shell Scripting

Shell scripting is the art of writing scripts to automate tasks or create new tools that run within the Linux command line environment. Shell scripts are written in languages like Bash, zsh, or ksh, and they utilize shell commands to execute actions. Writing shell scripts allows you to automate repetitive tasks, customize the Linux experience, and enhance productivity.

File Systems

Linux uses various file systems to organize and manage data. One of the most common is the Extended File System (Ext). Ext3, Ext4, and Ext5 are widely used and offer robust performance and reliability. File systems like these provide a hierarchical structure for storing data, offering features like compression, journaling, and access control.

Process Management

Process management handles the execution of programs and tasks within Linux. The init process, which is the first process to run on a Linux system, manages all other processes. The ps and kill commands allow you to view and manage processes, while tools like top and htop provide real-time monitoring of system activity.

User Permissions

Linux utilizes a permission model that distinguishes between three types of users: the owner, group members, and everyone else. Permissions are associated with each file or directory and can be set at three levels: read, write, and execute. User permissions ensure that files and directories are kept secure and only accessible to those who need them.

Network Configuration

Linux provides several network configuration tools to assist with setting up network connections, managing routes, and configuring firewalls. The netstat command provides information about network connections, while utilities such as ifconfig and ip are used to configure network interfaces. Linux has additional tools like nmap and tcpdump that help analyze and troubleshoot network issues.

As an operating system, Linux is highly customizable and offers a wide range of distributions tailored to specific needs. Linux's open-source nature attracts a vibrant community of developers and users, ensuring that it continues to evolve and improve. By learning the fundamentals of Linux, you'll gain the knowledge to manage your systems effectively and tap into the limitless possibilities that Linux provides.

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