Understanding Upama and Yamaka in Alankaar

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Upama kise kahte hain?


Upama ka uddeshya kya hota hai?


Yamaka kis uddeshya se prayog hota hai?

Arth ko samajhdari se vyakt karna

Upama ke kitne prakar hote hain?


'Vyabhicharika' prakar ki upama me kya ho jaata hai?

Vastu ke asli swabhav ka tulnatmak varnan

'Diva' shabd kis granth me anek baar dohraaya gaya hai?


Upma Alankar kya hai?

Shabd ya vakya ka 11 baar anuvaad

Yamak Alankar mein kis prakar ka anuvaad hota hai?

20 baar anuvaad

Purusha Sukta mein Purusha ka varnan kis se kiya gaya hai?

Surya se

T.S. Eliot kaunse kavi hain?

T.S. Eliot

"Howl" mein kis kavi dwara shabdon aur vakyon ka dohraav kiya gaya hai?

Allen Ginsberg

"The Waste Land" kis kriti mein likhi gayi hai?

"The Waste Land"

Study Notes

Alankaar: Understanding Upma and Yamak

Alankaar, a Sanskrit term, refers to literary devices used in various forms of artistic expression, including poetry, prose, and drama. In the context of this article, we'll focus on Upama and Yamaka, two specific types of Alankaar found in classical Sanskrit literature and poetics.

Upama (Simile)

Upama is a figure of speech that compares two things without using the words "like" or "as." It creates an implicit comparison between the subject and the object, without explicitly stating that they are similar. Upama is often used to establish a vivid image in the reader's mind, helping them understand the subject better. For example, in the epic Mahabharata, Arjuna is described as having eyes like lotuses.

Upama can be further classified into three types: Samyuktaka (comparison of two similar elements), Aptavatika (comparison of two dissimilar elements), and Vyabhicharika (comparison of unlike qualities in the same subject).

Yamaka (Repetition)

Yamaka is a literary device that involves repeating a word or phrase multiple times to create emphasis, amplify meaning, and establish a rhythmic flow in the text. In Sanskrit poetry, Yamaka is often used to highlight important ideas, making them more memorable and impactful to the audience. For example, in the Rigveda, the word "diva" (sun) is repeated several times in a hymn praising its power and glory.

Yamaka can be classified into two types: Ekadasa-yamaka (repetition of a word or phrase 11 times), and Vimshati-yamaka (repetition of a word or phrase 20 times).

A Famous Example: The Rigveda

The Rigveda, one of the oldest Sanskrit texts, contains numerous examples of Upama and Yamaka. The hymn "Purusha Sukta" is particularly rich in Alankaar, including Upama and Yamaka.

In this hymn, the Purusha, or primordial being, is described as having various body parts, such as eyes and limbs, that correspond to different aspects of the natural world. The Purusha is then compared to the sun, using Upama: "He having eyes and face like the sun, he having teeth like a horse, he having two arms like a bull, and two feet like a ram".

The repetition of words such as "eyes," "face," "teeth," "arms," and "feet" in the context of the Purusha and the sun creates a vivid image, emphasizing the importance of the Purusha as the source of all life and creation.

Relevance in Modern Literature

While Upama and Yamaka are often found in classical Sanskrit literature, these Alankaar have also been used in modern poetry and prose. For example, the English poet T.S. Eliot's use of simile in "The Waste Land" invites comparisons between the contemporary world and classical mythology. Similarly, the repetition of words and phrases in modern poetry, such as in Allen Ginsberg's "Howl," creates a rhythmic and impactful flow that amplifies the message and tone of the text.


Upama and Yamaka are two of the many Alankaar used in Sanskrit literature to create vivid imagery, emphasize important ideas, and make text more memorable. Understanding these devices can offer valuable insights into classical Sanskrit texts, as well as inspire modern writers to use similar literary techniques in their work.

Explore the literary devices of Upama and Yamaka, specific types of Alankaar found in classical Sanskrit literature and poetics. Learn how these figures of speech create vivid imagery, emphasize key ideas, and enhance the impact of the text through comparisons and repetitions.

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