The Rise of the World's First Cities

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Who conducted a small excavation in Harappa in the 1850s?

What did Charles Masson believe about Harappa?

What did Alexander Cunningham miss when he obtained a seal with a bull and some strange writing?

What was the attitude of the officers of the Archaeological Survey of India towards Harappa and Mohenjodaro in the early 20th century?

What is one of the differences between Harappan sites mentioned in the text?

What does the re-interpretation of certain structures imply about the Harappan civilization?

What was one significant finding of recent excavations at Harappa?

What is one implication of the debates about various aspects of the Harappan civilization?

What is an example of the differences between Harappan sites mentioned in the text?

What do the differences in subsistence strategies, food habits, and craft traditions suggest?

What did Gideon Sjoberg emphasize in relation to the history of cities and empires?

According to Childe, what was a key characteristic of the world's first cities?

What did McC.Adams emphasize in his contribution to understanding city life?

What was an important aspect of McC.Adams' contribution to understanding city life?

What was Childe's emphasis regarding the rise of the world's first cities?

What did Robert McC.Adams assert about the emergence of cities?

What did Childe's criteria for identifying cities include?

What did Gideon Sjoberg assert played a pivotal role in the emergence of cities?

What was one of the roles played by cities highlighted by McC.Adams?

What is one way in which cities differed from villages, according to Childe?

What was one function served by monumental public buildings in cities according to Childe?

What was emphasized by Gideon Sjoberg in relation to empires?

What allowed a greater level of protection and security in a city compared to a village?

Why did elite groups tend to be concentrated in the city and live near its centre?

Which factor has been suggested as playing an important role in the emergence of cities, according to the text?

What aspect does archaeology primarily provide direct information on regarding the emergence of the world’s first cities?

What is one of the aspects contributing to the story of urbanization?

What has increased enormously since the momentous discoveries at Mohenjodaro and Harappa?

What was crucial for dating the Harappan civilization in the initial years after its discovery?

What bias have scholars become very conscious of and acknowledge the need to view the Harappan civilization independently?

'Lurewala' and 'Ganweriwala' are mentioned in the text as sites that are as large or even larger than which two cities?

What is one feature that scholars have increasingly directed attention to, according to the text?

What has Balu in Haryana yielded that indicates it was a rich rural settlement?

What type of settlements have profiles available for them, according to the text?

Who made the formal announcement of the discovery of the Indus or Harappan civilization in 1924?

What did V. Gordon Childe describe as the city?

Why did some scholars object to V. Gordon Childe's use of the word 'revolution' to describe urbanization?

What was an important implication of John Marshall's announcement about the Indus or Harappan civilization?

What was Pandit Hiranananda Sastri's initial opinion about excavating Harappa?

How did R.D. Banerji contribute to the excavation efforts at Mohenjodaro?

According to Pandit Hiranananda Sastri and D.R. Bhandarkar, what were their initial thoughts about the age and significance of Mohenjodaro?

'Urbanization' and 'civilization' are more or less synonymous because:

'Civilization' has grander connotations compared to 'urbanization' primarily because:

'Monumental architecture', specialized crafts, and long-distance trade are occasionally found in non-urban contexts as well, which raises an objection regarding:

What was one of the earliest exceptions regarding urban settlements without writing?

Charles Masson believed that Harappa was the place where Alexander defeated King Porus in battle.

Alexander Burnes visited Harappa and fully understood its precise significance.

Alexander Cunningham conducted a small excavation in Harappa in 1850s and was impressed by the remains of the structures.

The officers of the Archaeological Survey of India who explored Harappa and Mohenjodaro in the early 20th century were enthusiastic about the sites.

Pandit Hiranananda Sastri initially thought there was no point in excavating Harappa.

D.R. Bhandarkar’s assessment was that Mohenjodaro could not be more than 250 years old.

Daya Ram Sahni started excavations at Mohenjodaro in 1920.

R.D.Banerji started excavating Mohenjodaro in 1921.

The formal announcement of the discovery of the Indus or Harappan civilization was made by Robert McC.Adams.

The word ‘urbanization’ means the disappearance of cities.

Mayan civilization of Mesoamerica and the Mycenaean civilization of Greece did not have true cities.

According to V.Gordon Childe (1950), the ‘urban revolution’ was sudden and violent.

Childe's 10 criteria for distinguishing the first cities were all directly deducible from the archaeological data.

'Urbanization' and 'civilization' are more or less synonymous because they both refer to a specific cultural stage associated with cities and writing.

According to some scholars, neolithic settlements have been described as urban based on size and architecture even without writing.

One trend in defining a city is to narrow down the diagnostic features such as focusing on elite groups and long-distance trade.

The Harappan sites share common features but no regional or inter-site differences.

The black-on-red Harappan pottery formed the majority of the total pottery finds at Allahdino.

The mud-brick platforms in the southern part of the citadel complex at Kalibangan, interpreted as ‘fire altars’, occur at most other sites.

Post-cremation burials were much more numerous at Mohenjodaro than at Harappa.

The ‘great granaries’ at Mohenjodaro and Harappa were confirmed to be granaries after recent excavations.

Recent excavations at Harappan sites have not reflected any changes in approaches, goals, and techniques within the discipline of archaeology.

The world’s first cities were smaller and less densely populated than villages.

Specialized craftspersons, merchants, and officials were part of the city population but not full-time farmers and herdsmen.

Farmers did not have to hand over their surplus produce as tax or tribute to a ruling elite.

Monumental public buildings were not a characteristic feature of cities.

There was no trade-off between the ruling class and the rest of society in cities.

The invention of writing did not lead to the development of exact but practically useful sciences such as arithmetic and astronomy.

Conceptualized and sophisticated styles of artistic expression did not make their appearance in cities.

Cities did not imply a significant amount of long-distance trade.

Cities did not imply a state organization based on residence in a territory rather than on kinship.

The state did not provide security and materials to specialist craftspersons in cities.

Gideon Sjoberg emphasized that political control was not crucial in maintaining the social organization of empires.

'Lurewala' and 'Ganweriwala' are mentioned in the text as sites that are smaller than Mohenjodaro and Harappa.

The concentration of population in a relatively small space in a city allowed a greater level of protection and security than possible in a village.

Elite groups tended to be dispersed in the city and usually lived near its center.

Archaeology provides direct information on social and political factors rather than technological aspects when reconstructing the emergence of the world’s first cities.

The story of urbanization is one of decreasing cultural complexity and expanding craft production.

Recent discoveries have not contributed to the understanding of the Harappan civilization.

Scholars have not become very conscious of earlier bias and acknowledge the need to view the Harappan civilization independently.

Mohenjodaro and Harappa were the only urban settlements emphasized in the initial years after their discovery.

A small fortified rural settlement in Balu, Haryana, yielded a poor variety of plant remains.

The emergence of cities has to be viewed as part of a shorter history of human settlements, both rural and urban.

Over the years, only technological factors have been suggested as having played an important role in the emergence of cities.

The amount of data and information about the Harappan civilization has been steadily decreasing over time.

Lurewala and Ganweriwala are smaller sites compared to Mohenjodaro and Harappa.

What was the significance of the seal obtained by Alexander Cunningham at Harappa?

Who was dismayed to find the mounds of Harappa badly disturbed by railway contractors?

What did Charles Masson believe about Harappa?

What was one of the key characteristics of the world's first cities according to V. Gordon Childe?

What are some of the differences in Harappan sites mentioned in the text?

What has been re-considered in recent years regarding certain structures at Harappan sites?

What changes have been observed in recent excavations at Harappan sites?

What are the implications of the re-interpretation of structures at Harappan sites?

What does the text suggest about the debates regarding various aspects of the Harappan civilization?

What does the text highlight as a key feature of recent excavations at Harappa?

Who made the formal announcement of the discovery of the Indus or Harappan civilization in 1924?

What did Childe describe as the city?

What does 'urbanization' mean?

Who started excavations at Harappa in 1920?

What was one of the earliest attempts to define a city, according to the text?

What did the formal announcement of the discovery of the Indus or Harappan civilization imply?

What did Childe describe as the result of the 'urban revolution'?

Who excavated Mohenjodaro in 1921?

What was one of the implications of Marshall's dramatic announcement?

What was the significance of the discoveries at Harappa and Mohenjodaro?

Who reported that there was no point in excavating Harappa?

Who contributed to the excavation efforts at Mohenjodaro?

According to Childe, what were the 10 characteristics of cities?

What did Gideon Sjoberg emphasize as playing a pivotal role in the emergence of cities?

What was one important aspect of McC.Adams' contribution to understanding city life?

What was the trade-off between the ruling class and the rest of society in cities according to the text?

What did the ruling elite live off in cities?

What were the groups that comprised the city population?

What were the monumental public buildings in cities according to Childe?

What was the significance of the invention of systems of recording according to the text?

What was one of the differences between cities and villages according to Childe?

What was one of the features scholars have increasingly directed attention to?

What was emphasized by Gideon Sjoberg in relation to the history of cities and empires?

What did some scholars suggest about neolithic settlements according to the text?

What allowed a greater level of protection and security in a city compared to a village?

Where did elite groups tend to be concentrated in the city?

Apart from being centres of intellectual and commercial activity, what else did cities become centres of?

What have been suggested as important factors in the emergence of cities?

What is the primary source for reconstructing the emergence of the world’s first cities?

What has increased enormously over the eight decades or so since the discoveries at Mohenjodaro and Harappa?

What have scholars become very conscious of in recent decades regarding the Harappan civilization?

What have scholars increasingly directed attention to, according to the text?

What is one of the roles highlighted by McC.Adams that cities played?

What did Childe's criteria for identifying cities include?

What does the text suggest as one implication of the debates about various aspects of the Harappan civilization?

What are profiles available for?

In 1826, Charles Masson, an adventurer who had deserted the East India Company army, stood on the mounds of ______, a village in Sahiwal district of Punjab.

When Cunningham re-visited Harappa in 1872, he came as Director General of the newly established Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). He was dismayed to find the mounds badly disturbed by ______ contractors who had been busy extracting free bricks.

He conducted a small excavation and discovered the remains of some structures, but was not impressed. When Cunningham re-visited Harappa in 1872, he came as Director General of the newly established Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). He was dismayed to find the mounds badly disturbed by ______ contractors who had been busy extracting free bricks.

The officers of the Archaeological Survey of India who explored Harappa and Mohenjodaro in the early 20th century were ______ about the sites.

There are also differences in the types, range, and frequency of ______.

The mud-brick platforms in the southern part of the citadel complex at Kalibangan, which have been interpreted as ‘fire altars’, do not occur at most other ______.

The re-interpretation of structures has important implications for the understanding of the Harappan social and political ______.

The debates about various aspects of the Harappan civilization reflect both the potential of archaeology as a window into the ancient past and the important role of ______ in this discipline.

There has also been greater use of scientific techniques, including the analysis of bone and teeth remains, which provide very specific information about the diet and health of the ______.

Conclusions can be reached on certain issues, while in other cases, it is necessary to acknowledge the current limits of our ______.

One of the earliest attempts to define a city was made by V.Gordon Childe in the year ______.

The emergence of cities and writing tend to go together, and 'urbanization' and 'civilization' are more or less ______.

Childe described the city as the result and symbol of a revolution that marked a new economic stage in the evolution of society, known as the ______ revolution.

Some features, such as monumental architecture, specialized crafts, and long-distance trade, are occasionally found in non-urban contexts as well, which raises an objection regarding the criteria for defining ______.

Childe identified 10 abstract criteria, all supposedly deducible from archaeological data, which distinguished the first cities from the older and contemporary ______.

Pandit Hiranananda Sastri reported that he did not think there was any point in excavating ______.

The formal announcement of the discovery of the Indus or Harappan civilization was made in ______ by John Marshall.

In 1920, Daya Ram Sahni started excavations at ______.

R.D.Banerji started excavating ______ in 1921.

Childe's observations proved to be the starting point of an important debate on the diagnostic features of ______ societies.

Archaeologists have described neolithic settlements as urban on the basis of size and architecture, even in the absence of ______.

Childe's 10 criteria seem to be a loose assemblage of overlapping features, and are not arranged in any sequence of relative ______.

Childe emphasized the importance of technological and subsistence factors such as increasing food surpluses, copper-bronze technology, and the use of wheeled transport, sailboats, and ______

McC.Adams also highlighted the multiple roles played by cities: They were nodes for the appropriation and redistribution of agricultural surpluses. They provided a permanent base for new social and political institutions that regulated the relationships between specialized producers occupying different ______

Gideon Sjoberg emphasized the close connection between the history of cities and the rise and fall of ______

Political control was crucial in maintaining the social organization of empires and providing the stability necessary for the development of trade and ______

The invention of writing led to the development of exact but practically useful sciences such as arithmetic, geometry, and ______

Cities implied a significant amount of long-distance ______

They also implied a state organization based on residence in a territory rather than on ______

Monumental public buildings were hallmarks of cities and reflected the concentration of social surplus (i.e., surplus produce and wealth generated in a society) in the hands of the ______

Rulers lived off the surplus produced by farmers and in return provided them with peace, security, planning, and ______

Recent excavations at Harappan sites have not reflected any changes in approaches, goals, and techniques within the discipline of ______

Scholars have increasingly directed attention to settlement size, architectural features (e.g., fortifications and the use of stone and brick), and a uniform system of weights and ______

The various hypotheses that have been put forward to explain the rise of the world’s first cities are reflective of how different scholars view and understand the unfolding of historical ______

The concentration of population in a relatively small space in a city allowed a greater level of protection and security than possible in a ______.

Elite groups tended to be concentrated in the city and usually lived near its ______.

Apart from being centres of intellectual and commercial activity, since elite groups were usually also patrons of the arts, cities also became centres of cultural and artistic ______.

The story of urbanization is one of increasing cultural complexity, a widening food resource base, greater technological sophistication, expanding craft production, social ______, and the emergence of a level of political organization that can be described as a ______.

New sites have been discovered, old sites re-excavated, and there are several new interpretations based on the old and new ______.

Since archaeology forms the primary source for reconstructing the emergence of the world’s first cities, there is more direct information on the technological aspect rather than other ______, which can be understood only in very general terms.

The emergence of cities has to be viewed as part of a longer history of human settlements, both ______ and urban.

Another feature of the early decades of Harappan studies was an emphasis on urban settlements, especially Mohenjodaro and Harappa. Apart from being the first sites of the culture to be excavated, these two cities seemed to stand out by virtue of their size and ______ features.

Scholars have increasingly directed attention to the smaller, less imposing sites, including ______ and villages.

Recent Discoveries and Changing Perspectives Over the eight decades or so since the momentous discoveries at Mohenjodaro and Harappa, information about the Harappan civilization has increased ______.

In recent decades, scholars have become very conscious of the earlier bias and acknowledge the need to view the Harappan civilization independently rather than through a ______ lens.

Profiles of different kinds of Harappan settlements are now available, and the understanding of the networks that connected cities, towns, and ______ is slowly growing.

There are also differences in the types, range, and frequency of ______.

The mud-brick platforms in the southern part of the citadel complex at Kalibangan, which have been interpreted as ‘fire altars’, do not occur at most other ______.

Recent excavations at Harappan sites reflect the changes in approaches, goals, and techniques within the discipline of ______.

The debates about various aspects of the Harappan civilization reflect both the potential of archaeology as a window into the ancient past and the important role of interpretation in this ______.

The re-interpretation of structures has important implications for the understanding of the Harappan social and political ______.

The story of urbanization is one of increasing cultural complexity, a widening food resource base, greater technological sophistication, expanding craft production, social ______, and the emergence of a level of political organization that can be described as a ______.

The various hypotheses that have been put forward to explain the rise of the world’s first cities are reflective of how different scholars view and understand the unfolding of historical ______.

Childe emphasized the importance of technological and subsistence factors such as increasing food surpluses, copper-bronze technology, and the use of wheeled transport, sailboats, and ______.

Cities implied a significant amount of long-distance ______.

Scholars such as Robert McC. Adams emphasized social factors, while Gideon Sjoberg asserted that political factors played the pivotal role in the emergence of ______.

Rulers lived off the surplus produced by farmers and in return provided them with peace, security, planning, and ______.

Childe's 10 criteria seem to be a loose assemblage of overlapping features, and are not arranged in any sequence of relative ______.

The state provided security and materials to specialist craftspersons, enabling them to live a settled rather than an itinerant ______.

Monumental public buildings were hallmarks of cities and reflected the concentration of social surplus (i.e., surplus produce and wealth generated in a society) in the hands of the ______.

Recent Discoveries and Changing Perspectives Over the eight decades or so since the momentous discoveries at Mohenjodaro and Harappa, information about the Harappan civilization has increased ______.

Cities and village are not two opposite poles, but interdependent and interacting parts of a larger cultural and ecological ______.

The invention of writing led to the development of exact but practically useful sciences such as arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy, and the creation of a ______.

The story of urbanization is one of decreasing cultural complexity and expanding craft ______.

The concentration of population in a relatively small space in a city allowed a greater level of protection and security than possible in a ______.

Elite groups tended to be concentrated in the city and usually lived near its ______.

Since archaeology forms the primary source for reconstructing the emergence of the world’s first cities, there is more direct information on the technological aspect rather than other ______, which can be understood only in very general terms.

Recent discoveries at Harappan sites have reflected changes in approaches, goals, and techniques within the discipline of ______.

Scholars have increasingly directed attention to the smaller, less imposing sites, including ______ and villages.

Childe's 10 criteria seem to be a loose assemblage of overlapping features, and are not arranged in any sequence of relative ______.

What was one of the key characteristics of the world's first cities according to V. Gordon Childe? - Monumental public buildings were hallmarks of cities and reflected the concentration of social surplus (i.e., surplus produce and wealth generated in a society) in the hands of the ______.

The amount of data and information about the Harappan civilization has been steadily ______ over time.

Gideon Sjoberg emphasized the close connection between the history of cities and the rise and fall of ______.

The emergence of cities has to be viewed as part of a longer history of human settlements, both rural and ______.

The state did not provide security and materials to specialist craftspersons in ______.

Monumental public buildings were hallmarks of cities and reflected the concentration of social surplus (i.e., surplus produce and wealth generated in a society) in the hands of the ______.

Charles Masson, an adventurer who had deserted the East India Company army, stood on the mounds of ______, a village in Sahiwal district of Punjab. He was convinced that this must have been the very place where, in the 4th century BCE, the Macedonian invader Alexander had defeated king Porus in battle. A few years later, a traveller named Alexander Burnes visited ______. He thought it was an important site, but was clueless about its precise significance. Many decades later, in the 1850s, ______ was visited by Alexander Cunningham, a military engineer with the East India Company who was keenly interested in archaeology. He conducted a small excavation and discovered the remains of some structures, but was not impressed. When Cunningham re-visited ______ in 1872, he came as Director General of the newly established Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). He was dismayed to find the mounds badly disturbed by railway contractors who had been busy extracting free bricks. Cunningham found stone tools and ancient pottery, and also obtained a seal with a bull and some strange writing. He was intrigued, but concluded that since the bull did not have a hump, the seal must be a foreign one. He missed a very important clue. The officers of the Archaeological Survey of India who explored ______ and Mohenjodaro in the early 20th century were unenthusiastic about the sites.

Cunningham found stone tools and ancient pottery, and also obtained a seal with a bull and some strange writing. He was intrigued, but concluded that since the bull did not have a hump, the seal must be a foreign one. He missed a very important clue. The officers of the Archaeological Survey of India who explored Harappa and Mohenjodaro in the early 20th century were unenthusiastic about the ______.

In 1826, Charles Masson, an adventurer who had deserted the East India Company army, stood on the mounds of Harappa, a village in Sahiwal district of Punjab. He was convinced that this must have been the very place where, in the 4th century BCE, the Macedonian invader Alexander had defeated king Porus in battle. A few years later, a traveller named Alexander Burnes visited ______. He thought it was an important site, but was clueless about its precise significance.

When Cunningham re-visited Harappa in 1872, he came as Director General of the newly established Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). He was dismayed to find the mounds badly disturbed by railway contractors who had been busy extracting free bricks. Cunningham found stone tools and ancient pottery, and also obtained a seal with a bull and some strange writing. He was intrigued, but concluded that since the bull did not have a hump, the seal must be a ______ one.

The sites were eventually excavated. In 1920, Daya Ram Sahni started excavations at Harappa and in 1921, R.D.Banerji started excavating ______

The formal announcement of the discovery of the Indus or Harappan civilization was made in in 1924 by John Marshall, Director General of the Archaeological Survey, almost a century after Charles Masson had wandered over the mounds of Harappa and sensed that there was something significant about the place. The implications of Marshall’s dramatic announcement were enormous. An important and exciting fragment of India’s past had been uncovered, and the beginnings of civilization in India were pushed back some 2,500 years, to a time roughly contemporaneous with the civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt. JOHN MARSHALL, DIRECTOR GENERAL, ASI, 1902–28 Civilization and Urbanization: Definitions and Implications The word ‘urbanization’ means the emergence of cities. ‘Civilization’ has more abstract and grander connotations, but refers to a specific cultural stage generally associated with cities and writing. In a few instances, archaeologists have described neolithic settlements as urban on the basis of size and architecture, even in the absence of writing. This is the case with 8th millennium BCE Jericho in the Jordan valley and the 7th millennium BCE settlement at Çatal Hüyük in Turkey. It has also been pointed out that the Mayan civilization of Mesoamerica and the Mycenaean civilization of Greece did not have true cities, while the Inca civilization of Peru did not have a system of true writing. However, apart from a few such exceptions, cities and writing tend to go together, and ‘urbanization’ and ‘civilization’ are more or less synonymous. One of the earliest attempts to define a city was made by V.Gordon Childe (1950). Childe described the city as the result and symbol of a revolution that marked a new economic stage in the evolution of society. Like the earlier ‘neolithic revolution’, the ‘urban revolution’ was neither sudden nor violent; it was the culmination of centuries of gradual social and economic changes. Childe identified 10 abstract criteria, all supposedly deducible from archaeological data, which distinguished the first cities from the older and contemporary villages. RAKHALDAS BANERJI, WHO EXCAVATED ______ IN 1921 Childe’s observations proved to be the starting point of an important debate on the diagnostic features of urban societies.

One of the earliest attempts to define a city was made by V.Gordon Childe in the year ______

Childe described the city as the result and symbol of a revolution that marked a new economic stage in the evolution of society. Like the earlier ‘neolithic revolution’, the ‘urban revolution’ was neither sudden nor violent; it was the culmination of centuries of gradual social and economic changes. Childe identified 10 abstract criteria, all supposedly deducible from archaeological data, which distinguished the first cities from the older and contemporary villages. RAKHALDAS BANERJI, WHO EXCAVATED MOHENJODARO IN 1921 Childe’s observations proved to be the starting point of an important debate on the diagnostic features of urban societies. Some scholars did not agree with his use of the word ‘revolution’ to describe urbanization, as it suggests sudden, deliberate change. Further, his 10 criteria seem to be a loose assemblage of overlapping features, and are not arranged in any sequence of relative importance. For instance, were sophisticated artistic styles as important as an agricultural surplus or a state structure? Further, all 10 features (e.g., exact and predictive sciences) are not directly deducible from the archaeological data. Another objection is that some features, such as monumental architecture, specialized crafts, and long-distance trade are occasionally found in non-urban contexts as well. However, if we consider the 10 characteristics collectively instead of individually, it has to be conceded that Childe did succeed in identifying the most significant features and implications of city life. Over the years, there have been three different sorts of trends in defining the city. One is to narrow down the diagnostic features, focusing, for instance, on writing, monumental structures, and a large population. RAKHALDAS BANERJI, WHO EXCAVATED MOHENJODARO IN ______ Childe’s observations proved to be the starting point of an important debate on the diagnostic features of urban societies.

The word ‘urbanization’ means the emergence of ______

‘Civilization’ has more abstract and grander connotations, but refers to a specific cultural stage generally associated with ______ and writing.

An important and exciting fragment of India’s past had been uncovered, and the beginnings of civilization in India were pushed back some 2,500 years, to a time roughly contemporaneous with the civilizations of ______ and Egypt.

Childe described the city as the result and symbol of a revolution that marked a new economic stage in the evolution of society. Like the earlier ‘neolithic revolution’, the ‘urban revolution’ was neither sudden nor violent; it was the culmination of centuries of gradual social and economic changes. Childe identified 10 abstract criteria, all supposedly deducible from archaeological data, which distinguished the first cities from the older and contemporary villages. RAKHALDAS BANERJI, WHO ______ MOHENJODARO IN 1921 Childe’s observations proved to be the starting point of an important debate on the diagnostic features of urban societies.

Childe described the city as the result and symbol of a revolution that marked a new economic stage in the evolution of society. Like the earlier ‘neolithic revolution’, the ‘urban revolution’ was neither sudden nor violent; it was the culmination of centuries of gradual social and economic changes. Childe identified 10 abstract criteria, all supposedly deducible from archaeological data, which distinguished the first cities from the older and contemporary villages. Some scholars did not agree with his use of the word ‘revolution’ to describe ______, as it suggests sudden, deliberate change.

The formal announcement of the discovery of the Indus or ______ civilization was made in in 1924 by John Marshall, Director General of the Archaeological Survey, almost a century after Charles Masson had wandered over the mounds of Harappa and sensed that there was something significant about the place.

Over the years, there have been three different sorts of trends in defining the city. One is to narrow down the diagnostic features, focusing, for instance, on writing, monumental structures, and a large ______.

______’s observations proved to be the starting point of an important debate on the diagnostic features of urban societies. Some scholars did not agree with his use of the word ‘revolution’ to describe urbanization, as it suggests sudden, deliberate change. Further, his 10 criteria seem to be a loose assemblage of overlapping features, and are not arranged in any sequence of relative importance. For instance, were sophisticated artistic styles as important as an agricultural surplus or a state structure? Further, all 10 features (e.g., exact and predictive sciences) are not directly deducible from the archaeological data. Another objection is that some features, such as monumental architecture, specialized crafts, and long-distance trade are occasionally found in non-urban contexts as well. However, if we consider the 10 characteristics collectively instead of individually, it has to be conceded that ______ did succeed in identifying the most significant features and implications of city life.

Match the following individuals with their contributions to the excavation efforts at ancient sites:

Match the following civilizations with their characteristics:

Match the following terms with their definitions:

Match the following scholars with their emphasis on factors in the emergence of cities:

Match the individuals with their contributions to the excavation efforts at Harappa and Mohenjodaro:

Match the civilizations with their characteristics according to V. Gordon Childe:

Match the terms with their descriptions according to the text:

Match the characteristics with their implications for the emergence of cities according to the text:

Match the following with the characteristics of the world's first cities according to V. Gordon Childe:

Match the following with the contributions to understanding city life according to McC.Adams:

Match the following with the implications of political control in Gideon Sjoberg's view:

Match the following with their roles in city life according to McC.Adams:

Match the following with their roles in the emergence of cities:

Match the following with their contributions to understanding city life:

Match the following with their characteristics related to Harappan settlements:

Match the following with their association with the study of cities:

Match the following with their implications for understanding the Harappan civilization:

Match the following with their descriptions of urbanization and civilization:

Match the following with their characteristics attributed to V. Gordon Childe's concept of city:

Match the following with their implications for understanding urban societies:

Match the following with their implications for understanding archaeological data:

Match the following with their findings or contributions to understanding city life:

Description

Explore the various trends and hypotheses related to the rise of the world's first cities, including settlement size, architectural features, cultural complexity, and political control. Delve into scholarly perspectives on this pivotal historical development.

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