The Nervous System Overview

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What is the role of interneurons in the nervous system?

Process incoming impulses and pass them on to motor neurons

Which part of the brain controls balance, posture, and coordination?

Cerebellum

What is the function of sensory neurons in the nervous system?

Carry impulses from inside and outside the body to brain and spinal cord

What is the main function of motor neurons in the nervous system?

Transmit a response message to shoulder muscles

What process creates a wave of changing charges down the axon during impulse transmission?

Depolarization due to sodium ions

Which section of the brain controls memory, intelligence, and muscles?

Cerebrum

What is the function of the somatic nervous system?

Relay information between skin, skeletal muscles, and the central nervous system

Which part of the neuron carries impulses away from the cell body?

Axon

In the nervous system, which system is responsible for involuntary control of body functions?

Autonomic Nervous System

Which part of the nervous system acts as the body's control center and coordinates the body's activities?

Central Nervous System

Which part of the neuron receives impulses and carries them toward the cell body?

Dendrites

During times of stress, which part of the autonomic nervous system is primarily active?

Sympathetic Nervous System

Study Notes

Nervous System Overview

  • The Nervous System consists of the Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
  • CNS is made up of the brain and spinal cord, acting as the body's control center
  • PNS is made up of nerves that carry messages to and from the CNS

Central Nervous System

  • Acts as the body's control center, coordinating body activities
  • Impulses travel through neurons to reach the brain
  • Consists of brain and spinal cord

Peripheral Nervous System

  • Made up of nerves that carry messages to and from the CNS
  • Similar to telephone wires connecting the community
  • Works with CNS to make rapid changes in the body in response to stimuli
  • Divided into two parts: Somatic Nervous System and Autonomic Nervous System

Peripheral Nervous System: Somatic Nervous System

  • Relays information between skin, skeletal muscles, and CNS
  • Consciously controlled by deciding whether to move muscles (except reflexes)
  • Reflexes are automatic responses to stimuli

Peripheral Nervous System: Autonomic Nervous System

  • Relays information from CNS to organs
  • Involuntary, not consciously controlled
  • Divided into Sympathetic Nervous System (controls in times of stress) and Parasympathetic Nervous System (controls in times of rest)

Neurons

  • Basic unit of structure and function in the nervous system
  • Conduct impulses, made up of dendrites, cell body, and axon
  • Dendrites receive impulses, axon carries impulses away from cell body
  • Three types: Sensory Neurons, Interneurons, and Motor Neurons

Neuron Function

  • Sensory Neurons: carry impulses from inside and outside the body to CNS
  • Interneurons: process incoming impulses and pass them on to Motor Neurons
  • Motor Neurons: carry impulses away from CNS to muscles or glands

Impulse Transmission

  • Stimulus excites sensory neuron, causing depolarization
  • Impulse moves down axon, across synapse with help of neurotransmitters
  • Impulse reaches next neuron, continuing the transmission process

The Brain

  • Three main sections: Cerebrum, Cerebellum, and Brainstem
  • Cerebrum: controls memory, intelligence, muscles, and conscious activities
  • Cerebellum: controls balance, posture, and coordination
  • Brainstem: controls involuntary activities such as breathing

Learn about the central nervous system, which consists of the brain and spinal cord, as well as the peripheral nervous system made up of all the nerves in the body. Understand how impulses travel through neurons and how these systems work together to coordinate body activities.

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