Structured Wiring System Components Quiz

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160 Questions

What is a disadvantage of a packet-switched network?

Higher complexity in routing

What security challenge is associated with a packet-switched network?

Requirement of encryption

What is an advantage of a circuit-switched network?

Simple and guaranteed resources setup

Why is a circuit-switched network considered to have limited scalability?

Extensive infrastructure changes required for scaling up

Which network type has the advantage of ensuring minimal risk of data loss during transmission?

Circuit-switched network

What is a key disadvantage of a circuit-switched network in terms of resource utilization?

Inefficient resource use with reserved bandwidth

What is the standard that draws up to 15.4 watts of power from the PoE switch port to power an IP phone?

IEEE 802.3af-2003

What mechanism helps identify and prevent collisions, improving overall network efficiency?

Collision Detection/Avoidance

What is NOT a method to minimize collisions in a network?

Shared Networks

Which network is NOT addressed when designing an end-to-end solution for networks?

Cloud-based wide area network infrastructures

What did early Ethernet networks utilize in terms of topology?

Bus topology

Which standard draws up to 25.5 watts of power from the PoE switch port to power an IP phone?

IEEE 802.3at-2009

What type of networks are aggregations of multiple buildings on the same physical campus?

Campus backbone networks

Which component of a structured wiring system is responsible for providing connectivity to desktop locations?

Workstation outlet

What is the primary advantage of Cut-Through Switching over Store and Forward Switching?

Limited error checking

Which type of coaxial cable is typically used for RF transmissions and antennae cabling to radio equipment?

RG-58/U

What design consideration helps mitigate Ethernet's error susceptibility over longer distances?

Layer 2 switching functions through MAC address filtering

What is the advantage of a Hierarchical Backbone Network over a Flat Backbone Network?

Simplicity

Which backbone network approach involves connecting departmental LANs to a centralized high-speed backbone using VLANs and Ethernet tagging?

Flat Backbone Network

What is a disadvantage of collapsed backbone topology?

Fiber optic cabling requirement

What function does the Intrabuilding distribution serve in a structured wiring system?

/Typically emanates from main distribution frame (MDF) to intermediate distribution frame (IDF)

What is the responsibility of the destination in a packet-switched network?

Reassemble packets upon delivery

Which layer of the OSI model operates at the bottom and involves the signaling of 1's and 0's?

Physical Layer

What type of current is used in analog communications?

Alternating current (AC)

What is used to define a 1 or a 0 in digital transmission?

Voltage

Which transmission medium consists of an outside insulation protective sheath supported by a metal inner conductor and metallic braided sheath?

Coaxial transmission medium

How does air impact the transmission of 1's and 0's in a network?

When there is no clear line of sight between endpoints or in the presence of moisture like fog or raindrops

What issue arises on an Ethernet LAN if two devices share the same MAC address?

Network errors and collisions

"CSMA/CD" determines if there is available room to transmit by:

"Listening before transmitting"

"MAC spoofing" on an Ethernet LAN occurs when:

"Two devices have the same MAC address"

"Ethernet LAN doesn't try to prevent all collisions; it merely listens and transmits" - This statement refers to which approach?

"Non-deterministic, unpredictable transmission approach"

What is the main purpose of a collapsed backbone network design?

To simplify the architecture by merging core and distribution layers into one layer

Which network layer is responsible for managing connectivity to access layer devices?

Distribution network

What is the main function of Layer 4 Flow Control in a network?

Managing the pacing of data to prevent congestion

Which protocol is used as the main method to transit packets across a network?

Internet Protocol (IP)

What are the steps involved in establishing a TCP connection between a remote client and a server?

Remote client sends connection request, server acknowledges, client confirms, data exchange, close request, server acknowledges close request

What does IPv6 Multicast refer to?

Sending a packet to multiple destinations

In IPv6 architecture, what does a unicast address refer to?

Assigning IP addresses to individual network interfaces for one-to-one communication

What are the benefits of using a host-based IPv6 architecture?

(large mainframe computer) performing all functions, clients enable users to send/receive messages.

What is a drawback of using a client/server IPv6 architecture?

Performance tied to network bandwidth.

What characterizes a peer-to-peer (P2P) architecture?

Peers share data and processing with each other.

What is one of the benefits of the architecture described in the text?

Fault tolerance

Which type of attack prevents normal use of network resources for legitimate purposes?

DDoS attack

What is the purpose of Trojan Horse malware?

Trick users into downloading and exploiting known vulnerabilities

Which HTTP request method is used to retrieve and render a resource?

HEAD

What does REST stand for in Representational State Transfer?

Representational State Transfer

Which application layer control uses public-private key system for email protection?

PGP

What is the main characteristic of a Worm malware?

Self-replicates and spreads by inserting copies of itself into other executable codes

Which technology assists in translating connection requests to TCP/IP tunnel for security?

CONNECT

What is a characteristic of Botnets?

Launch attacks from multiple distributed agents IP addresses

Which malicious software encrypts files or volumes and demands ransom for decryption key?

Ransomware

In a packet-switched network, there is no potential for packet loss or delays.

False

Circuit-switched networks offer simplicity in managing connections because they require complex routing procedures.

False

Packet-switched networks are more efficient in resource utilization compared to circuit-switched networks.

False

A key disadvantage of a circuit-switched network is its vulnerability to failure, where a broken circuit disrupts the entire connection.

True

Security challenges are not a concern in packet-switched networks due to their shared nature.

False

Circuit-switched networks provide constant dedicated bandwidth suitable for real-time applications like voice calls.

True

CSMA/CD determines if there is available room to transmit by listening to the media for any current traffic.

True

Ethernet LAN uses a deterministic transmission approach to prevent collisions effectively.

False

In digital communications, square waves are used to represent 1 or 0 in transmission.

True

Fiber optic cables typically have a single strand within the same cable sheath to connect multiple devices.

False

Using radio frequency coax cable can support greater bandwidth and transmissions only at closer distances.

False

AC current in analog communications continuously changes due to its transmission via a square wave signal.

False

Ethernet LAN prevents all collisions by actively managing and controlling the network transmissions.

False

Fiber optics are not suitable for long-distance data transmissions due to signal degradation.

False

Copper transmission mediums like UTP and STP cabling are primarily used for high-speed transmissions in data networking applications.

True

In a packet-switched network, the destination's responsibility includes reassembling packets upon delivery.

True

Full-duplex communication allows simultaneous data transmission and reception, increasing the chance of collisions.

False

Ethernet supports up to 100 Gbps trunk bandwidth speeds on single-mode optical fiber.

False

Edge networks refer to aggregations of remote buildings within a regional MAN service area.

False

Switched networks provide dedicated paths for communication, reducing collisions compared to shared networks.

True

CSMA/CD stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection.

True

Early Ethernet networks were designed utilizing ring topologies.

False

Hierarchical Backbone Network is advantageous over a Flat Backbone Network due to its scalability.

True

VLANs isolate network traffic throughout by creating multiple collision domains.

True

CSMA/CD helps in isolating traffic between nodes that frequently exchange packets into a common VLAN.

False

VLANs provide high-speed backbone trunking to server farms.

False

Cut-Through Switching provides more robust error checking compared to Store and Forward Switching.

False

In a structured wiring system, the Main Distribution Frame (MDF) is where backbone cabling terminates to provide connectivity to desktop locations.

False

RG-60U coaxial cable is typically used for Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) transmission to monitors.

False

In a Hierarchical Backbone Network, departmental LANs are connected to a central high-speed backbone using VLANs and Ethernet tagging.

False

The collapsed backbone topology requires fiber optic cabling to connect each departmental LAN to the central switch.

True

A benefit of a structured wiring system is that it does not support rapid moves, adds, and changes.

False

The Intrabuilding distribution typically extends from an Intermediate Distribution Frame (IDF) to the data center facility.

False

Collapsed backbone topology offers enhanced performance due to the presence of multiple network tiers.

False

Store and Forward Switching has higher latency compared to Cut-Through Switching due to storing and verifying the complete frame before forwarding.

True

Campus or building backbone distribution typically consists of fiber optic backbone cabling and coaxial bundled cabling for connectivity within a building.

False

In a collapsed backbone network, the core and distribution layers are merged into a single layer.

True

IPv6 Multicast refers to sending a packet to a single destination.

False

The three methodologies of IPv6 for sending packets include Unicast, Anycast, and Multicast.

True

A Hierarchical Backbone Network is more scalable than a Flat Backbone Network.

True

The benefits of using a host-based IPv6 architecture include scalability and easy expansion.

False

Cut-Through Switching has the advantage of processing frames faster than Store and Forward Switching.

True

In a client/server IPv6 architecture, the client computer performs all four functions.

False

P2P architecture involves peers sharing data and processing with a centralized server.

False

CSMA/CD determines available room to transmit by detecting collisions on the network.

True

Trojan Horse malware encrypts files or volumes and demands ransom for decryption key.

False

Trojan Horse malware is typically disguised as a harmful program to trick users into downloading it.

False

Virus has the capability to spread file to file without the need for human interaction.

False

Ransomware encrypts files, demanding a ransom for encryption key and ensuring data integrity.

True

DDoS attack is launched from a single agent IP address.

False

Botnets are infected workstations controlled by remote-controlled malware.

True

S/MIME secures emails using a username and password encryption system.

False

REST issues remote service calls using TCP and the web.

False

SSH provides encrypted login capability through a secure username and password system.

True

Worms are self-replicating programs that require human interaction to spread.

False

Malware Scanners use various techniques to check files for trojans and viruses.

True

What is a major disadvantage of a circuit-switched network in terms of scalability?

Adding more users requires extensive infrastructure changes

Why is security challenging in a packet-switched network?

Data exposure due to shared nature of the network

What does a circuit-switched network guarantee once the circuit is established?

Minimal risk of data loss during transmission

Which aspect makes managing connections easier in a circuit-switched network?

Dedicated bandwidth for each connection

Why are packet-switched networks prone to delays and packet loss?

Shared resources and varying routes

What is a key advantage of a circuit-switched network's dedicated bandwidth for real-time applications?

Predictable connection suitable for voice calls

What is the responsibility of the destination in a packet-switched network?

Reassembling packets upon delivery

How can air impact the transmission of 1's and 0's in a network?

Air can cause distortions in signal when there is no clear line of sight between endpoints

What is the primary function of the Physical Layer in the OSI model?

Handling the signaling of 1's and 0's

What is the main purpose of MAC spoofing in an Ethernet LAN?

To create network errors and collisions

What type of current is used in digital communications to represent 1 or 0?

Square waves

What distinguishes fiber optic cables from other transmission media like coaxial and copper?

They support large amounts of data transmissions over long distances

What is one way to minimize collisions in a network?

Isolating traffic between nodes into separate VLANs

In Ethernet LAN, what approach does Ethernet use to manage collisions effectively?

Deterministic transmission approach

Which standard defines a network running at 10 Mbps using Thicknet coaxial cable?

IEEE 802.3

What happens if two devices share the same MAC address on an Ethernet LAN?

'Network error and collision' occur

In Ethernet networks, what is the responsibility of NIC cards during collisions?

Retransmitting after receiving notification of a collision

What differentiates Full-duplex Communication from Half-duplex Communication in network transmissions?

Full-duplex allows simultaneous data transmission and reception, while Half-duplex only allows one at a time

How does Fiber Optic transmission medium differ from Coaxial transmission medium?

Fiber optics have a glass core and cladding for light travel

Which method helps identify and prevent collisions in a network?

Implementing Collision Detection/Avoidance mechanisms

What type of voltage levels are used in Digital communications to represent 1 or 0?

Square waves

How do switches make Ethernet networks faster compared to traditional setups?

Providing dedicated paths for communication and reducing collisions

Why is Real-time application traffic prioritization important in network routing?

To avoid network congestion and bandwidth limitations

What is the main function of MAC spoofing on an Ethernet LAN?

Falsifying MAC addresses to gain unauthorized access

What does CSMA/CD stand for in the context of Ethernet networking?

Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection

What is a key advantage of using Switched Networks over shared networks?

Dedicated paths for communication leading to reduced collisions

What is the primary advantage of collapsed backbone topology?

Reduced latency and improved data transfer speeds

Which component of a structured wiring system is responsible for connecting twisted-pair cabling to an RJ-45 connector at the desktop location?

Workstation outlet

What function does Intrabuilding distribution serve in a structured wiring system?

Provides connectivity from an MDF to IDF or wiring closets

Which common type of coaxial cable is typically used for RF transmissions and antennae cabling to radio equipment?

RG-58/U

What are the advantages of using hierarchical backbone network approach over flat backbone network approach?

Reduced complexity with fewer network tiers

What is the main function of Layer 2 switching in designing end-to-end solutions for workgroup LANs?

Error checking through MAC address filtering

What is a disadvantage of store and forward switching compared to cut-through switching?

Higher latency due to entire frame storage

'CSMA/CD helps in isolating traffic between nodes that frequently exchange packets into a common VLAN' - This statement is:

False

'VLANs provide high-speed backbone trunking to server farms' - This statement is:

False

Which technology is used to encrypt and maintain integrity when data is low and only shared to get tasks accomplished?

Blockchain

What is the main function of PGP in terms of email protection?

Uses public-private key system

Which application layer control offers strong protection for email through a public-private key system?

S/MIME

What type of malware is typically disguised as a useful program to exploit known vulnerabilities?

Trojan Horse

Which transmission medium consists of an outer insulation protective sheath supported by a metal inner conductor and metallic braided sheath?

Coaxial cable

Which malicious software encrypts files or volumes and demands ransom for decryption key?

Ransomware

In what way does a Worm malware spread?

By inserting into executable codes or programs

'DoS Attack' involves consuming resources on a target computer in order to:

Prevent legitimate use of network resources.

What is the main purpose of developing 'Malicious Software (malware)'?

To gather information about users' activity covertly.

What is one of the primary functions of the core layer in a collapsed backbone network?

Responsible for high-speed data transfer

Which Layer 4 function is responsible for managing the pacing of data to avoid collisions and congestion?

Flow Control

In IPv6, what architecture type involves an application server, an application, and a database server?

Cloud computing/N-tier architecture

What feature of IPv6 helps in simplifying renumbering networks?

Standardizing the host identification part of the address

Which methodology in IPv6 involves sending a packet to the nearest node in a specified group of nodes?

Anycast

What does the TCP Three Way Handshake involve?

A client connection request, server acknowledgment, and client close request

What is one of the benefits of using Client/Server IPv6 architecture?

Leverages workstation processing and reduces local storage cost

Which protocol is commonly used to send error messages in networking?

ICMP

In an IPv6 unicast address, what does it uniquely identify for communication?

A single destination node within an IPv6 network

Study Notes

Packet-Switched Network Responsibilities

  • In a packet-switched network, the destination is responsible for:
    • Putting packets back in order
    • Identifying missing packets and requesting retransmission after a timeout period
    • Reassembling packets upon delivery

Physical Layer

  • Operates at the bottom layer of the OSI model
  • Responsible for signaling 1's and 0's
  • Uses cabling or transmission media to transmit signals
  • Analog communications use alternating current (AC) with a continuously changing voltage or amplitude signal
  • Digital communications use discrete voltages or values to represent 1's and 0's

Transmission Media

  • Copper transmission medium:
    • Used in unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) and shielded twisted-pair (STP) cables
    • Supports low-, medium-, and high-speed transmissions
  • Coaxial transmission medium:
    • Used in rugged indoor or outdoor cables
    • Supports greater bandwidth and longer distances
  • Glass/fiber transmission medium:
    • Supports large amounts of data transmission over long distances
    • Typically has multiple strands within the same cable sheath
  • Air transmission medium:
    • Used in infrared, satellite, wireless, or radio frequency (RF)-based network technology
    • Can be affected by lack of clear line of sight or moisture

Network Interface Cards (NICs)

  • Can possess multiple NICs, especially in virtual machines
  • Enables association with multiple MAC addresses
  • MAC addresses can be modified through software drivers, but conflicts arise if two devices share the same MAC address

Ethernet

  • Uses a nondeterministic, unpredictable transmission approach
  • Operates using CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection)
  • Supports up to 400 Gbps trunk bandwidth speeds on single-mode optical fiber
  • Uses Layer 2 and Layer 3 LAN switches to provide each port with an Ethernet LAN segment or collision domain

Network Design

  • Minimizing collisions in a network can be achieved through:
    • Full-duplex communication
    • Switched networks
    • Segmentation
    • Collision detection/avoidance
  • Networks can be categorized into:
    • Edge networks
    • Building backbone networks
    • Campus backbone networks
    • Metropolitan area networks (MANs)
    • Wide area backbone networks

Ethernet Detention

  • Works when a NIC transmits onto the media and simultaneously listens
  • A valid transmission allows the destination node to receive the Ethernet frame, while collisions trigger the transmitting node's transceiver to halt and retransmit after a random backoff

IEEE PoE Standards

  • IEEE 802.3af (2003): Draws up to 15.4 watts of power from the PoE switch port
  • IEEE 802.3at (2009): Draws up to 25.5 watts of power from the PoE switch port

Disadvantages of Packet-Switched Network

  • Potential for packet loss and delays
  • Higher complexity in routing
  • Security challenges

Advantages and Disadvantages of Circuit-Switched Network

  • Advantages:
    • Constant dedicated bandwidth
    • No packet loss
    • Simplicity in managing connections
  • Disadvantages:
    • Inefficient use of resources
    • Limited scalability
    • Vulnerability to failure

Structured Wiring System

  • Components:
    • Workstation outlet and RJ-45 connections
    • Intermediate distribution frame (IDF) or wiring closet
    • Intrabuilding distribution
    • Main distribution frame (MDF) or data center
  • Benefits:
    • Modular and flexible for supporting end-to-end connectivity
    • Supports rapid moves, adds, and changes
    • Has a lifespan of more than 10 years of operation

Cut-Through and Store-and-Forward Switching

  • Cut-Through Switching:
    • Advantages: Lower latency
    • Disadvantages: Limited error checking
  • Store-and-Forward Switching:
    • Advantages: Robust error checking
    • Disadvantages: Higher latency

Design Considerations for Internetworking Workgroup LANs

  • Various-sized switches with fixed-port and chassis-based options
  • Fiber optic cables for extended connectivity
  • Layer 2 switching functions through MAC address filtering and forwarding
  • IEEE 802.1Q Ethernet tagging for unique identification and extension of Layer 2 VLANs### Network Architecture
  • Used in collaborative environments where peers trust each other
  • Technology is not safe, so Blockchain is used to encrypt and maintain integrity
  • Benefits: Fault tolerant, reduced need for central authority
  • Drawbacks: No central authority, conflict resolution must be negotiated, difficult to provide confidentiality

Data Storage and Management

  • Stores and manages data efficiently
  • Process: Data Storage, Data Processing, User Interface (UI) Processing, Business Logic Processing

Request Methods

  • GET: Retrieve and render a resource (web page)
  • HEAD: Same as GET, without any data in the response body
  • POST: Submit input data to resource (web server)
  • PUT: Overwrite data on (web server) resource
  • DELETE: Delete data in (web server) resource
  • TRACE: Generates an echo for debugging and auditing of a web server
  • OPTIONS: Returns HTTP methods the web server supports
  • CONNECT: Translates connection request to a TCP/IP tunnel; to increase security of a connection (HTTPS)
  • PATCH: Applied partial modifications to the specified resource

Representational State Transfer (REST)

  • Issues remote service calls using HTTP and the web
  • HTTP response consists of 3 parts: Status code, Response header, Optional message body

Malicious Software (Malware)

  • Developed for the purpose of doing harm
  • Types:
    • Trojan Horse: Disguised as a useful program to trick users to download and exploit known vulnerabilities
    • Spyware: Covertly gathers information about users' activity and reports it to a third party
    • Virus: Capability to generate copies of itself and spread file to file; it requires interaction of an individual and spread slowly
    • Worm: A self-replicating program that spreads by inserting copies of itself into other executable codes, programs, or documents
    • Ransomware: Malware that encrypts files, or even entire volumes, and forces the victim to pay a ransom to get the decryption key

Security Threats

  • DoS Attack: Attacker consumes the resources on a target computer and prevents normal use of network resources for legitimate purposes
  • DDoS Attack: Similar to DoS; except attack is launched from multiple distributed agents IP addresses
  • Botnets: Workstations infected with remote-controlled malware from a collection of other remotely controlled infected workstations

Application Layer Controls

  • Malware Scanners: Anti-malware programs use many techniques to check files and applications for viruses
  • SSH: Gives the ability to login to systems in a secure manner as username and password are encrypted
  • PGP: Uses public-private key system and offers strong protection from email
  • S/MIME: Secures email by using X.509 certificates authentication

HTTP Request Process

  • Web browser initiates connection
  • Web browser sends HTTP request to server
  • Browser constructs HTTP message and sends to host from URL
  • HTTP request methods indicates whether request/response has a body and how to handle the message

Packet-Switched Network

  • Disadvantages:
    • Potential for packet loss and delays
    • Higher complexity in routing
    • Security challenges
  • Advantages:
    • Constant dedicated bandwidth
    • No packet loss
    • Simplicity in managing connections

Circuit-Switched Network

  • Disadvantages:
    • Inefficient use of resources
    • Limited scalability
    • Vulnerability to failure
  • Advantages:
    • Ensures a stable, predictable connection suitable for real-time applications like voice calls
    • Minimal risk of data loss during transmission

Physical Layer

  • Operates at the bottom layer of the OSI model
  • Signaling of 1's and 0's occurs
  • Cabling or other transmission media is needed to transmit them
  • Analog communications use alternating current (AC)
  • Digital communications utilize discrete voltages or values to represent a 1 or a 0 in transmission

Transmission Medium

  • Copper transmission mediums:
    • Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) and shielded twisted-pair (STP) cable
  • Coaxial transmission medium:
    • Rugged indoor or outdoor cable
    • Supports greater bandwidth and transmissions at further distances
  • Glass/fiber transmission medium:
    • Fiber cables have a glass core surrounded by a glass cladding
    • Supports large amounts of data transmissions over very far distances
  • Air Transmission Medium:
    • Transmission medium for infrared, satellite, wireless, or radio frequency (RF)-based network technology

Network Interface Card (NIC)

  • Physical component that connects a computer to a network
  • Can possess multiple NICs, especially when using virtual machines on the same physical workstation
  • Having multiple NICs enables association with several MAC addresses

MAC Addressing

  • MAC address is typically assigned by the manufacturer for each NIC
  • Some NICs permit users to modify these addresses through software drivers
  • MAC spoofing: This will create a network error and collisions on an Ethernet LAN if two devices have the same MAC address

Ethernet

  • Uses a nondeterministic, unpredictable transmission approach
  • CSMA/CD determine if there is available room to transmit
  • IEEE 802.3af-2003: Standard that draws up to 15.4 watts of power from the PoE switch port to power an IP phone
  • IEEE 802.3at-2009: Standard that draws up to 25.5 watts of power from the PoE switch port to power an IP phone

Collision Detection/Avoidance

  • Mechanisms help identify and prevent collisions, improving overall network efficiency
  • Full-duplex Communication: Allows simultaneous data transmission and reception, reducing the chance of collisions
  • Switched Networks: Provide dedicated paths for communication, minimizing collisions compared to shared networks
  • Segmentation: Breaks the network into smaller collision domains, limiting the scope of collisions

Quality of Service (QoS)

  • Routing that prioritizes time-sensitive protocols, ensuring faster delivery of packets
  • Enables real-time applications, relying on time-sensitive protocols, to benefit from faster delivery of packets

Switching

  • Components of CSMA/CD:
    • Carrier sense
    • Multiple access
    • Collision detection
  • Cut-Through Switching: Forwards frames as soon as the destination address is recognized, reducing latency
  • Store and Forward Switching: Stores and verifies the complete frame before forwarding, enabling more robust error checking

Structured Wiring System

  • Components:
    • Workstation outlet and RJ-45 connections
    • Intermediate distribution frame (IDF) or wiring closet
    • Intrabuilding distribution
    • Main distribution frame (MDF) or data center
  • Benefits:
    • Modular and flexible for supporting end-to-end connectivity
    • Support rapid moves, adds, and changes
    • Have a lifespan of more than 10 years of operation

Coaxial Cable

  • Types:
    • RG-6: Typically used for home audio, video, and TV transmission equipment
    • RG-58: Typically used for RF transmissions and antennae cabling to radio equipment
    • RG-59/U: Closed circuit television (CCTV) transmission to monitors
    • RG-60U: High definition television (HDTV) and high-speed cable modems

Network Design

  • Considerations:
    • Various-sized switches with fixed-port and chassis-based options
    • Fiber optic cables to mitigate error susceptibility
    • Layer 2 switching functions through MAC address filtering and forwarding mechanisms
    • IEEE 802.1Q Ethernet tagging to enable unique identification and extension of Layer 2 VLANs
    • Optimize performance with high-speed Ethernet, QoS, and scalable subnetting
    • Enhance security through ACLs, firewalls, and robust authentication mechanisms

Backbone Network

  • Approaches:
    • Hierarchical Backbone Network: Features a structured, multilayered design linking departmental LANs to a central high-speed backbone
    • Flat Backbone Network: Involves connecting departmental LANs to a centralized high-speed backbone using VLANs and Ethernet tagging
  • Advantages of collapsed backbone topology:
    • Simplicity
    • Cost-effectiveness
    • Enhanced performance
  • Disadvantages of collapsed backbone topology:
    • Fiber optic cabling is required
    • The central switch represents a single point of failure### Network Architecture
  • A collapsed backbone network is a simplified design where the core and distribution layers are collapsed into a single layer.
  • The core layer is responsible for high-speed data transfer, and the distribution layer manages connectivity to access layer devices.
  • There are 3 common network connection levels:
    • Access network: supports PC and workstation connectivity
    • Distribution network: connects workgroup LANs into department LANs
    • Core backbone network: connects building backbones and departmental LANs into a common and shared network

Network Services

  • Layer 4 provides flow control, fragmentation/assembly, error control, and acknowledgement of delivery.
  • Protocols operate within the network layer, including:
    • IP (main protocol used to transit packets across the network)
    • ICMP (easy method to send short messages, commonly used for error messages)
    • IPSec (authenticates and encrypts each IP packet)

TCP Connection

  • Steps to set up and use a TCP connection:
    • Remote client sends connection request to server
    • Server acknowledges connection request
    • Client confirms acknowledgment to server
    • TCP connection is established, and client and server exchange messages
    • Remote client sends a close request to the server
    • Server acknowledges the close request and sends all messages
    • Client acknowledges server's close request
    • Server closes its side of the connection after receiving acknowledgment
  • Steps 1-3 are referred to as the Three Way Handshake

IPv6

  • Making assigning IP addresses easier
  • Simplifying renumbering networks
  • Standardizing the host identification part of the address
  • Integrating network security into the protocol
  • Defining multicasting as part of the specification
  • 3 methodologies to send packets to one, several, or many destinations:
    • Unicast: sending a packet to a single destination
    • Anycast: sending a packet to the nearest node in a specified group of nodes
    • Multicast: sending a packet to multiple destinations

Architecture Types

  • Host-based: server performing all four functions and clients enable users to send and receive messages to and from the host computer
    • Benefits: superior security controls, easy to manage data concurrency, simple
    • Drawbacks: not scalable, single point of failure, difficult to expand
  • Client/server: server performing all four functions is accessed by the client computer through the network
    • Benefits: leverages workstations processing, reduces local storage cost
    • Drawbacks: excessive network I/O, not scalable, performance tied to network bandwidth
  • Cloud computing/N-tier: users view websites through application server request, and the application accesses its data security through a database server
    • Benefits: maximizes data and processing distribution, scalable, easy to add components on demand
    • Drawbacks: more complex to code for distributed infrastructure, administration and security are partially outsourced/split, operations and recovery planning are more complex with more components
  • Peer-to-peer (P2P): peers share data and processing with each other
    • Benefits: fault tolerant, reduced need for central authority
    • Drawbacks: no central authority, conflict resolution must be negotiated, difficult to provide confidentiality

HTTP Request

  • Process of an HTTP request:
    • Web browser initiates connection
    • Web browser sends HTTP request to server
    • Browser constructs HTTP message and sends to host from URL
    • HTTP request methods indicate whether request/response has a body and how to handle the message
  • Request methods:
    • GET: retrieve and render a resource
    • HEAD: same as GET, without any data in the response body
    • POST: submit input data to resource
    • PUT: overwrite data on resource
    • DELETE: delete data in resource
    • TRACE: generates an echo for debugging and auditing of a web server
    • OPTIONS: returns HTTP methods the web server supports
    • CONNECT: translates connection request to a TCP/IP tunnel; to increase security of a connection
    • PATCH: applied partial modifications to the specified resource

Malicious Software

  • Malware: developed for the purpose of doing harm
  • Types of malware:
    • Trojan Horse: disguises as a useful program to trick users into downloading and exploiting known vulnerabilities
    • Spyware: software application that covertly gathers information about users' activity and reports it to a third party
    • Virus: capability to generate copies of itself and spread file to file; it requires interaction of an individual and spreads slowly
    • Worm: a self-replicating program that spreads by inserting copies of itself into other executable codes, programs, or documents
    • Ransomware: malware that encrypts files, or even entire volumes, and forces the victim to pay a ransom to get the decryption key

Network Security

  • Application Layer controls that can stand between attackers:
    • Malware scanners: anti-malware programs use many techniques to check files and applications for viruses
    • SSH: gives the ability to login to systems in a secure manner as username and password are encrypted
    • PGP: uses public-private key system and offers strong protection from email
    • S/MIME: secures email by using X.509 certificates authentication

Packet-Switched Network

  • Disadvantages:
    • Potential for packet loss and delays
    • Higher complexity in routing
    • Security challenges
  • Advantages:
    • Efficient use of resources
    • Scalable
    • Flexible

Circuit-Switched Network

  • Disadvantages:
    • Inefficient use of resources
    • Limited scalability
    • Vulnerability to failure
  • Advantages:
    • Constant dedicated bandwidth
    • No packet loss
    • Simplicity in managing connections

Physical Layer

  • Operates at the bottom layer of the OSI model
  • Signaling of 1's and 0's occurs at this layer
  • Cabling or other transmission media is needed to transmit them
  • Types of transmission media:
    • Copper transmission mediums: used in UTP and STP cables
    • Coaxial transmission medium: used in rugged indoor or outdoor cable
    • Glass/fiber transmission medium: used in fiber cables
    • Air transmission medium: used in infrared, satellite, wireless, or radio frequency (RF)-based network technology

Ethernet

  • Uses a nondeterministic, unpredictable transmission approach
  • Doesn't try to prevent all collisions; it merely listens and transmits
  • CSMA/CD determine if there is available room to transmit
  • Components of CSMA/CD:
    • Carrier sense
    • Multiple access
    • Collision detection
  • IEEE PoE standards:
    • IEEE 802.3af-2003: standard that draws up to 15.4 watts of power from the PoE switch port
    • IEEE 802.3at-2009: standard that draws up to 25.5 watts of power from the PoE switch port

Test your knowledge on the components of a structured wiring system, including workstation outlets, RJ-45 connections, intermediate distribution frames (IDF), and intrabuilding distribution. Learn about the key elements that make up a structured cabling infrastructure.

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