Solutions and Colligative Properties Calculations

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What is a saturated solution?

A solution with the maximum amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of solvent

How does temperature affect the solubility of a solid in a liquid?

Increases if dissolution is exothermic and decreases if dissolution is endothermic

What is an unsaturated solution?

A solution where more solute can be dissolved at the same temperature

Why doesn't pressure have a significant effect on the solubility of solids in liquids?

Solids and liquids are highly incompressible

What determines the solubility of one substance into another?

Nature of the substances, temperature, and pressure

Which principle must a nearly saturated solution follow based on dynamic equilibrium?

Le Chatelier's Principle

According to Raoult's law, what is the relationship between the partial vapour pressure of a component and its mole fraction in a binary liquid solution?

Directly proportional

In a binary liquid solution, if the mole fraction of component 1 increases, what happens to the partial vapour pressure of component 1 according to Raoult's law?

Increases

What is the significance of the total vapour pressure in a binary liquid solution according to the text?

It indicates the sum of partial pressures of both components

If the partial vapour pressure of component 2 (p2) is known and its mole fraction (x2) increases, what happens to p2 according to Raoult's law?

Increases

What role did Francois Marte Raoult play in understanding binary liquid solutions?

Introduced Raoult's law

How are partial vapour pressures related to mole fractions in a binary liquid solution?

Directly proportional

What is the molality of the glucose solution in Example 1.7?

0.1 mol/kg

What is the boiling point of the solution in Example 1.7?

373.202 K

In Example 1.8, what is the molar mass of the solute being dissolved in benzene?

58 g/mol

What effect does the lowering of vapour pressure in a solution have on the freezing point compared to the pure solvent?

Decreases the freezing point

At what temperature does the freezing point of a substance occur?

When solid phase is equal to liquid phase

What does DTb represent in the context of boiling point elevation?

Elevation in boiling point

What happens when a solution freezes according to Raoult’s law?

Its vapour pressure equals the vapour pressure of the pure solid solvent

How is the freezing point depression (∆Tf) related to molality (m) in ideal solutions?

∆Tf is directly proportional to m

What is Kf in the context of freezing point depression?

Proportionality constant for depression of freezing point

What is the unit of Kf, the Freezing Point Depression Constant?

K kg mol-1

If a solute produces a depression in freezing point ∆Tf, what equation relates this to the molality of the solute?

$m = rac{w1}{w2} imes M2$

What is the freezing point depression of the solution in the first example?

2.2 K

In the second example, what is the freezing point depression constant of benzene?

5.12 K kg mol-1

Based on the given information, what is the molality of ethylene glycol used in the solution?

1.2 mol kg-1

What is the freezing point of the aqueous solution in the first example?

270.95 K

In osmosis, why does the level of solution rise in the thistle funnel?

Due to the movement of solvent molecules across a semi-permeable membrane

What happens to blood cells when suspended in saline water?

They collapse

Test your understanding of solutions and colligative properties calculations with this quiz. Explore problems involving molality, boiling point elevation, non-volatile solutes, and more.

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