Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) and Decision-Making

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18 Questions

What is Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) used for?

Making static or sequential decisions

What is Signal Detection Theory (SDT)?

A statistical approach to quantify the ability to differentiate between signal (true events) and noise (false alarms).

What principle is the concept of Integrating Likelihoods Over Time based on?

The principle that multiple independent pieces of evidence can be combined to strengthen the overall decision

What does the Drift-Diffusion Model suggest about decision making?

The brain accumulates data from a threshold, and a decision is made based on this accumulation.

What is the role of the Posterior Parietal Cortex in decision-making?

Representing and utilizing prior stimulus information

What is the key principle behind Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT)?

Accumulating evidence until a threshold is reached to make efficient and quicker decisions

What are Reward and History Biases in decision-making?

Biases due to past rewards, punishments, or decisions that influence current decision-making.

How do attractor networks potentially behave in decision-making processes?

Exhibit 'diffusion-to-bound' behavior without computing a drift rate

Explain the Speed-Accuracy Trade-Off in decision-making.

A phenomenon where increasing speed may decrease accuracy and vice versa.

How does the concept of Multiple Samples Integration relate to decision-making?

It involves integrating information from multiple samples over time to make a decision.

How can reward biases be implemented in decision-making processes?

By shifting the psychometric function or the starting point of evidence accumulation

What is the role of Sequential Probability Ratio Test in decision-making processes?

It is used to determine when to switch from one decision to another based on accumulated evidence.

What are the four possible outcomes in Signal Detection Theory?

Hits, false alarms, misses, correct rejections

How can performance limitations be characterized in Signal Detection Theory?

By assessing false alarms and misses

In what decision-making model is evidence integrated from sensory information over time?

Drift-Diffusion Model (DDM)

What do firing rates align to in the Drift-Diffusion Model (DDM)?

Eye movement response

What drives 'diffusion-to-bound' behavior in networks, according to the text?

Emergent dynamics rather than computation of rate

What influences reward and history biases in decision-making shifts?

Value or probability changes of categories

Study Notes

Decision-Making Models and Theories

  • Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) is a mathematical method used to make decisions based on sequential observations.
  • Signal Detection Theory (SDT) is a theoretical framework that explores how people make decisions under uncertainty, considering both true and false alarms.
  • The concept of Integrating Likelihoods Over Time is based on the principle of combining evidence from multiple observations to make a decision.

Decision-Making Mechanisms

  • The Drift-Diffusion Model suggests that decision-making is a gradual process, where evidence accumulates over time until a threshold is reached, leading to a decision.
  • The Posterior Parietal Cortex plays a key role in decision-making, particularly in tasks that require the integration of sensory information.

Biases and Limitations

  • Reward and History Biases are types of biases that influence decision-making by prioritizing past rewards and experiences.
  • Attractor networks can exhibit oscillatory behavior in decision-making processes.
  • The Speed-Accuracy Trade-Off suggests that faster decisions may come at the cost of accuracy.
  • The concept of Multiple Samples Integration relates to decision-making, where evidence is integrated over time to make a decision.

Signal Detection Theory

  • The four possible outcomes in Signal Detection Theory are Hits, Misses, False Alarms, and Correct Rejections.
  • Performance limitations in Signal Detection Theory can be characterized by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.

Drift-Diffusion Model

  • In the Drift-Diffusion Model, firing rates align with the decision variable, which accumulates evidence over time.
  • The 'diffusion-to-bound' behavior in networks is driven by the integration of sensory evidence.

Reward and History Biases

  • Reward and history biases in decision-making shifts can be influenced by the integration of past rewards and experiences into the decision-making process.

Learn about how evidence accumulates and influences decision-making using the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT). Explore the concept of integrating likelihoods over time to strengthen decisions based on multiple independent pieces of evidence.

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