Lec 3

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40 Questions

Which inflammatory cell type is most prominent during the first 24 hours of inflammation?

Neutrophils

In chronic inflammation, which cells are typically the most prominent along with lymphocytes?

Monocytes-macrophages

What is lymphocytosis?

Increased number of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood

Which cell type is the most common finding in persons presenting with acute bacterial infections?

Neutrophils

What is the outcome of acute inflammation when the inciting injury is persistent or recurrent?

Chronic inflammation

Which type of chemotactic factor is produced from plasma proteins and attracts neutrophils?

Fibrinogen

What is the product of factor XIIa-mediated conversion of prekallikrein that acts as a chemotactic factor for neutrophils?

HETE

Which chemotactic factor is derived from leukotrienes and has a chemotactic effect on neutrophils?

LTB4

What chemotactic factor is a product of platelets, monocytes, and macrophages that attracts neutrophils and macrophages?

PDGF

Which chemotactic factor is a product of activated complement component that attracts neutrophils?

C5a

What is the most likely cause of the boy's increased susceptibility to infection based on the provided information?

Diminished opsonization

Which mechanism would be affected by a deficiency in integrins or selectins as mentioned in the text?

Adhesion and locomotion of neutrophils

In the context of the boy's condition, which process is part of the oxygen-dependent killing mechanism?

Production of hydrogen peroxide

If a patient shows normal neutrophil migration in a chemotaxis assay but impaired phagocytosis, what could be a likely cause?

Diminished opsonization

What role does opsonization play in the immune response against microbes?

Enhances phagocytosis by neutrophils

Which step in leukocyte recruitment is impaired in the 6-year-old child with recurrent infections and neutrophilic leukocytosis?

Adhesion to endothelium

What is the primary function of leukocytes during inflammation?

Phagocytosis of microbes

Which molecule is likely to be involved in the impaired rolling of leukocytes in the child with neutrophilic leukocytosis?

Integrins

What type of inflammation is characterized by the presence of microbial organisms but very few neutrophils?

Chronic inflammation

What is the main consequence of a defect in leukocyte rolling in an individual?

Impaired adhesion

Which of the following is true regarding leukocyte rolling during transmigration of neutrophils?

P-selectin on endothelial cells interacts with integrins on neutrophils.

Which of the following molecules acts as an opsonin to facilitate phagocytosis?

Complement C3b

Which of the following substances is a potent chemotactic agent for neutrophils?

C5a

Which enzyme is involved in phagocytic cell microbicidal activity?

NADPH oxidase

In chronic inflammation, which cell type is typically the most prominent along with lymphocytes?

Macrophages

What type of cells are primarily responsible for engulfing larger particles in inflamed tissue after 2-3 days?

Monocytes-macrophages

Which inflammatory cells are predominant in allergic reactions and parasitic infestations?

Eosinophils

What is a characteristic feature of monocytes in terms of their nuclear chromatin appearance?

Hills and valleys appearance

Which cells are identified by a blue-gray cytoplasm with occasional granules and vacuoles?

Macrophages

In which diseases is basophilia commonly observed?

Chronic myelogenous leukemia

What type of leukocytosis is commonly seen in allergic disorders, parasitic infestations, and certain malignancies?

Eosinophilic leukocytosis

Which condition is basophilic leukocytosis often indicative of?

Myeloproliferative neoplasm

What type of leukocytosis is commonly seen in chronic infections, autoimmune disorders, and inflammatory bowel diseases?

Monocytosis

In which condition is lymphocytosis commonly seen along with monocytosis?

Viral infections

What is the most common inflammatory cell type in persons presenting with acute bacterial infections?

Neutrophils

Which leukocytosis is specifically associated with autoimmune disorders like pemphigus and certain vasculitides?

Neutrophilic leukocytosis

Which type of leukocytosis is rare and often connected to certain malignancies like Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas?

Eosinophilic leukocytosis

In which condition is basophilic leukocytosis very uncommon?

Drug reactions

What type of leukocytosis is indicative of myeloproliferative neoplasms?

Basophilic leukocytosis

What kind of leukocytosis can be seen in chronic infections like tuberculosis and autoimmune disorders like lupus?

Monocytosis

Study Notes

Inflammation and Leukocytes

  • Neutrophils are the most prominent cell type during the first 24 hours of inflammation.
  • In chronic inflammation, macrophages and lymphocytes are the most prominent cells.

Chemotactic Factors

  • Kallikrein attracts neutrophils and is produced from plasma proteins.
  • Leukotriene B4 is derived from leukotrienes and attracts neutrophils.
  • Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is produced by platelets, monocytes, and macrophages and attracts neutrophils and macrophages.
  • C5a is produced by activated complement components and attracts neutrophils.

Leukocyte Functions

  • Opsonization plays a crucial role in the immune response against microbes by marking them for phagocytosis.
  • Leukocytes primarily function to engulf and eliminate pathogens during inflammation.
  • Defects in leukocyte rolling can lead to impaired leukocyte recruitment and increased susceptibility to infections.

Leukocytosis

  • Neutrophilic leukocytosis is commonly seen in acute bacterial infections.
  • Lymphocytosis is commonly seen in chronic infections, autoimmune disorders, and inflammatory bowel diseases.
  • Eosinophilic leukocytosis is commonly seen in allergic disorders, parasitic infestations, and certain malignancies.
  • Basophilic leukocytosis is often indicative of chronic myeloid leukemia.

Cellular Characteristics

  • Monocytes have a characteristic horseshoe-shaped nucleus with diffuse chromatin.
  • Eosinophils are identified by a blue-gray cytoplasm with occasional granules and vacuoles.
  • Basophils are involved in allergic reactions and parasitic infestations.

Diseases and Conditions

  • Chronic inflammation can lead to the presence of microbial organisms with few neutrophils.
  • Defects in integrins or selectins can lead to impaired leukocyte recruitment and increased susceptibility to infections.
  • Defects in leukocyte rolling can lead to impaired leukocyte recruitment and increased susceptibility to infections.

This quiz reviews the role of selectins in the leukocyte rolling process, which is the first step in neutrophils transmigrating from the blood vessels to tissues. It also covers the interaction between selectins and their ligands in this process.

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