# Sampling Design and Selection Process

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## 10 Questions

### What is the main purpose of stratified sampling?

To divide the population into strata and draw the sample at random from each division

### What is the characteristic of systematic sampling?

It entails choosing the nth name in a population as the sample

### What is the defining feature of cluster sampling?

It uses a group as a sample rather than an individual

### What is the primary goal of multi-stage sampling?

To involve different stages in the sampling process

### What does random sampling entail?

Giving every member of the population an equal chance to be selected

### What is the main objective of using a questionnaire in social science research?

To obtain relevant information most reliably and validly

### Which type of validity refers to how well a concept, idea, or behavior is transformed into a functioning reality?

Construct Validity

### What does the criterion-related validity measure indicate?

How scores from the test are correlated with an external criterion

### What is the aim of using the test-retest or stability test method in establishing reliability?

To determine how consistently or dependably a measurement scale measures what it is supposed to measure

### What should an instrument be able to do to demonstrate sensitivity?

Identify a case correctly (i.e., screen or diagnose a condition correctly)

## Study Notes

### Sampling Methods

• The main purpose of stratified sampling is to divide the population into homogeneous subgroups (strata) to ensure each subgroup is adequately represented.

### Systematic Sampling

• Systematic sampling is characterized by selecting every nth individual from a population, where n is a fixed interval.

### Cluster Sampling

• The defining feature of cluster sampling is the division of the population into smaller groups or clusters, and then selecting a few clusters to represent the population.

### Multi-Stage Sampling

• The primary goal of multi-stage sampling is to select a sample in multiple stages, starting with larger units and gradually moving to smaller units.

### Random Sampling

• Random sampling entails selecting participants randomly from a population, ensuring each individual has an equal chance of being selected.

### Questionnaires in Social Science Research

• The main objective of using a questionnaire in social science research is to gather self-reported data from participants.

### Types of Validity

• Construct validity refers to how well a concept, idea, or behavior is transformed into a functioning reality.

### Criterion-Related Validity

• Criterion-related validity measures how well a test or instrument correlates with a criterion, such as a gold standard or a future outcome.

### Establishing Reliability

• The aim of using the test-retest or stability test method is to establish reliability by demonstrating that the instrument yields consistent results over time.

### Instrument Sensitivity

• An instrument demonstrates sensitivity if it is able to detect subtle changes or differences in the variables being measured.

This quiz covers the process of determining the locale of the study and selecting respondents or participants for a research study. It includes the elements of location, total population, and types of sampling designs such as probability and non-probability, with a focus on (simple) random sampling.

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