Rizal's Death and Controversies

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What did Rizal do of his own accord in the chapel cell?

Kneel before the altar of the Virgin

Who did Rizal ask for his retraction and profession of faith in front of?

Fathers, Judge Advocate, Chief of the Picket, Adjutant of the Plaza

Where did Enriquez deliver the detailed document to Father Pio Pi?


Who brought the detailed document to Archbishop Nozaleda at the Palace?

Father Pio Pi

In what year did the Jesuit Superior issue an affidavit recounting his involvement in Rizal's alleged retraction?


What did Señor Fresno and Señor Moure witness Rizal doing before his death?

Kneeling before the altar of the Virgin

What did Rizal argue and stress that he did not believe in, despite the threat of eternal damnation in hell?

The idea of hell

Why did Rizal never turn his back on the Catholic Church despite not believing in hell?

He did not want to disappoint Father Villaclara

What action did Dr. Rizal consider taking before receiving the Sacraments, according to the Archbishop's commission?

Write a public retraction of his errors

What did the Father Superior of the Mission bring to the Archbishop's Palace as a precaution?

A retraction and profession of faith attributed to Dr. Rizal

In Austine Coates' analysis of Rizal, what was highlighted as one of Rizal's great characteristics?

His unwavering commitment to Filipino independence

What did Rizal stress and argue against despite being threatened with eternal damnation in hell?

The existence of a loving and forgiving God

What is significant about Rizal's burial according to the text?

He was buried in the ground without any cross or stone to mark his grave.

Why was Rizal's conversion seen as a pious fraud according to the text?

It was believed that his conversion was aimed at deceiving people.

How was Rizal perceived by the authorities at the time of his death?

As an impenitent person who did not receive spiritual aid.

According to Austine Coates' analysis, what could have induced Rizal to reconcile with the Church?

Political pressure from the Archbishop.

Why does the text suggest that Rizal's conversion was an 'extraordinary' act?

It went against his history of fighting against the Church.

What does the text imply about Rizal's burial compared to other burials on December 30, 1896?

He was not interred alongside other people who died on that day.

Study Notes

Rizal's Conversion and Execution

  • No masses were said for Rizal's soul or funeral held by the Catholics, despite his supposed conversion to Catholicism.
  • Rizal was not buried in the Catholic Cemetery of Paco but in a common ground without a cross or stone to mark his grave.
  • The entry in the book of burials shows Rizal's burial was done by special orders of the authorities, alongside those who died impenitent and did not receive spiritual aid.

Motives Behind Rizal's Conversion

  • There was no moral motive for Rizal's conversion, as it was deemed a pious fraud to make the people believe he broke down and succumbed to the Church.
  • The Archbishop had political motives for Rizal's conversion, and the Jesuits were instrumental in making it happen.

Rizal's Character and Beliefs

  • Rizal, a man of great character, was unlikely to be intimidated by the threat of eternal damnation in hell, as he argued that he did not believe in hell because the God he knew was loving and forgiving.
  • Rizal turned his back on the Catholic Church, but he never turned away from God.

The Retraction and Profession of Faith

  • The Archbishop required Rizal to make a retraction of errors publicly professed in words and writing and a profession of the Catholic Faith before administering the Sacraments.
  • Rizal read his retraction and profession of faith with pause and devotion before the altar of the Virgin, in the presence of the Fathers, the Judge Advocate, and other officials.

Witness Accounts

  • Father Villaclara personally witnessed Rizal's conversion and wrote a detailed account of it on the day of Rizal's death.
  • Father Pio Pi, the Jesuit Superior in the Philippines, issued an affidavit in 1917 recounting his involvement in Rizal's alleged retraction.

Explore the controversies surrounding the death and burial of Jose Rizal, a Filipino national hero. Learn about the contradictions between Rizal's beliefs and his treatment by the Catholic Church after his execution.

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