Rise of Autonomous States in the Eighteenth Century

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What were the main reasons for the downfall of the Mughal Empire?

Weak successive rulers, absence of definite law of succession, and invasions by Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali.

Who plundered the city of Delhi in 1739?

Nadir Shah, the ruler of Iran.

Which areas declared their independence during the period of the later Mughals?

Deccan, Bengal, Bihar, and Odisha.

What did Nadir Shah carry away after plundering Delhi?

Immense wealth, including the Kohinoor diamond and the jewel-studded Peacock Throne of Shahjahan.

What effect did the raids by Nadir Shah and invasions of Ahmad Shah Abdali have on the Mughal Empire?

They further weakened the empire.

What was the impact of the war of succession with Dara Shikoh on the Mughal Empire?

It led to bitterness, bloodshed, loss of money, and eventual downfall.

What were the causes of the decline of the Mughal Empire after Aurangzeb's reign?

Aurangzeb's religious policies, wars in Deccan and with the Rajputs, financial bankruptcy, lack of competent successors

During which century did the emergence of autonomous states reshape the boundaries of the Mughal Empire?

The eighteenth century

What contributed heavily to the downfall of the Mughal Empire in relation to Aurangzeb's policies?

His religious policies with both the Deccan and the Rajputs

Which European entities captured some of the Mughal Empire's territories in the later half of the eighteenth century?

European trading companies

What led to the financial bankruptcy of the Mughal Empire?

Wars of successions, rebellions, and luxurious style of rulers

Under whose leadership did the Marathas rise during this time?

Shivaji

Explore the causes of the decline of the Mughal Empire after Aurangzeb's reign, the emergence of regional kingdoms in the eighteenth century, and the rise of the Marathas under Shivaji. Understand the shift towards autonomous states during this period.

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