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PRAC QUIZ RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

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What is the primary function of the larynx?

To produce sound for speech

What is the primary function of the nasal cavity?

To act as a resonating chamber for speech sounds

What is the function of the epiglottis?

To close off the trachea during swallowing

What is the primary function of the intercostal muscles?

To move the rib cage upwards and outwards during inhalation

What is the primary function of the diaphragm?

To separate the chest from the abdomen

What is the primary function of the bronchioles?

To have walls of smooth muscle that can contract and relax

What is the primary function of the pleural membrane?

To line the inside of the chest cavity and cover the surface of the lungs

What is the primary function of the bronchi?

To carry air to and from the lungs

What is the primary function of the trachea/windpipe?

To carry air to and from the lungs.

What are bronchioles and what do they do?

very fine tubes with walls of smooth muscle. The finest of them end in groups of air sacs, the alveoli. This allows the bronchioles to control the flow of air in the lungs, expanding when the body needs more oxygen. Cilia and mucus are also present in it, protecting the lungs from contaminants.

What are alveoli + its functions

tiny air sacs that make up most of the lung. They occur in clusters and have very thin walls that are well supplied with blood capillaries for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Which one of the following has walls once cell in thickness and is well supplied with blood?

alveoli

the main function of the nasal cavity is to

warm, humidify and filter air

which of the following allows the lungs to move freely and with reduced friction

fluid within the pleura

air enters the lungs during inspiration because

air pressure outside the body is greater than in the lungs

during expiration, the

pressure inside the thoracic cavity increases

which of the following is true of gaseous exchange through the wall of the alveolus

net diffusion of oxygen from the alveoli to the blood capillaries

oxygen passes from the alveoli to the blood supply in capillaries by

active transport

the substance to which oxygen becomes chemically bonded within the RBC is

haemoglobin

the trachea is prevented from collapsing by rings of ___

cartilage

the dome shaped muscle that separates the abdominal cavity from the thoracic cavity

diaphragm

the muscles between ribs which assist in inhalation and exhalation

intercostal muscles

carbon dioxide attaches to this compound which is found in the RBC (term) which when binded is then called (term)

haemoglobin, carbaminohaemoglobin

most of the carbon dioxide which travels in the blood plasma does so in the form of

bicarbonate ions

the cells which line the trachea and bronchi are ciliated, explain why this lining is necessary

the ciliated cells contain goblin cells which secrete mucus; this can trap foreign harmful particles and prevent it from reaching the lungs which could cause damage. It also waves in a coordinated manner, sweeping the foreign particles to the pharynx where it can be spat out or swallowed.

list the organs and tissues through which oxygen travels from its entry to the body at the nose until it moves into the blood plasma in the capillaries of the lungs

nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, capillaries

what are the three functions of the nasal cavity?

warm, humidify and filter air act as a resonating chamber for sound provide a surface to detect odours

describe how air is drawn into the lungs during inhalation

diaphragm contracts, extending chest cavity downwards. intercostal muscles contract, extending rib cage upwards and outwards. air flows from higher pressures outside the body to lower pressure inside the lungs

describe how air is forced out of the lungs during exhalation

diaphragm relaxes, pushing up into chest cavity. Rib cage move downwards and in wards. Lung volume decreases. Air moves from higher pressure in lungs to lower pressure outside the body

at rest a person breathes between 16 and 18 times per minute using only the diaphragm. which muscles increase the volume of each breath when exercising

diaphragm and intercostal muscles

what percentage of inhaled air is oxygen and carbon dioxide respectively

20.95, 0.04

what percentage is exhaled air made of oxygen and carbon dioxide respectively?

15.8, 4.3

how is concentration gradient for oxygen and carbon dioxide maintained?

the constant flow of blood through the capillaries. As the blood flowing through the capillaries around each alveolus picks up oxygen and loses carbon dioxide, it is replaced by more blood being pumped into the capillaries. This ‘new’ blood is low in oxygen and high in carbon dioxide, so the concentration gradient is maintained

• the movement of air into and out of the alveoli as we breathe in and out. The air that has picked up carbon dioxide from, and lost oxygen to, the blood is replaced by ‘new’ air with each breath. The ‘new’ air is low in carbon dioxide and high in oxygen.

what percentage of carbon dioxide is transported by dissolving in plasma, as carbaminohaemoglobin and as bicarbonate ions in the plasma?

7-8, 22, 70

what are the most important organic wastes transported in solution in the blood plasma?

urea, creatine, uric acid

discuss the advantages of erythrocytes lacking a nucleus

they are flexible to squeeze through capillaries, which is essential for delivering oxygen throughout the body

biconcave shape=more space for haemoglobin, and so can carry more oxygen, increasing efficiency

discuss disadvantages of erythrocytes lacking nucleus

short life span- 120 days

How is carbon dioxide diffused out of the alveolus starting as bicarbonate ions in plasma

Hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions recombine to form carbonic acid, which then breaks down under enzyme action into water and carbon dioxide. This carbon dioxide also diffuses into the alveolus

how does breathing affect the level of water vapour in plasma?

when inhaling, it increases, when exhaling, it decreases

Emphysema is a disease which affects the alveoli and may be caused by long-term exposure to tobacco smoke. the lung tissue loses its elasticity and many of the capillaries which service the alveoli are destroyed. How do you think these changes to the lungs would affect its efficiency and why?

it would mean lower oxygen intake and carbon dioxide elimination from blood due to reduced surface area for gas exchange. Individual also may experience difficulty exhaling = trapped air in alveoli

what wld be symptoms of emphysema

shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, coughing, fatigue

how can emphysema be slowed

quit smoking, avoid exposure to lung irritants,

why wld sm1 with asthma find breathing difficult

inflammation of airways, constriction of bronchioles, excess mucus production in airways = reduced diameter of the airways = difficulty breathing because you cant intake as much air as you normally would

What is the primary purpose of a control test in an experiment?

To establish a standard against which to compare the experimental results

What is the term for a variable that is intentionally changed by the scientist in an experiment?

Independent variable

Why is it important to keep all other variables constant in an experiment, except for the one being tested?

To ensure the results are not biased

What would be the result if a scientist were testing the hypothesis that bacteria are killed by household bleach, and the bacteria in the experimental cultures were dead, but the bacteria in the control cultures were also dead?

The experiment would be inconclusive

What is the purpose of an experiment, according to the scientific method?

To test a hypothesis

Why is it important to design an experiment so that only one variable is changed at a time?

To isolate the effect of a single variable

What is the primary purpose of a control group in a scientific experiment?

To provide a basis for comparison with the experimental group

What is the main advantage of using measurement in scientific experiments?

It provides a precise and comparable way to record data

What is the purpose of a line graph in scientific experiments?

To represent continuous data and show trends

What is the primary reason for repeating an experiment in science?

To reduce the effect of uncontrolled variables

What is the purpose of a hypothesis in a scientific experiment?

To state the relationship between two variables

What is the main advantage of using a fair test in a scientific experiment?

It ensures that the results are due to the variable being tested

What is the primary reason for identifying variables in an experiment?

To determine the cause-and-effect relationship between variables

What is the characteristic of a good hypothesis?

It is a definite statement that links the independent and dependent variables

What is the primary purpose of reviewing existing literature during scientific investigation?

To prevent duplication of work already done by other scientists

What is the primary role of curiosity in scientific investigation?

It raises questions and problems to be solved

What is the primary difference between an independent variable and a dependent variable?

The independent variable is the factor being investigated, while the dependent variable is the factor being measured

What is the primary characteristic of a scientific investigation?

It involves a logical pattern of thought and investigation

What is the primary purpose of a histogram in data representation?

To show the frequencies of particular values or characteristics

What is the outcome of an experiment that supports a hypothesis?

The hypothesis is supported, but not proven

Why is it important to evaluate the experiment and its method?

To determine the validity, accuracy, and reliability of the results

What is the difference between a bar graph and a column graph?

The orientation of the rectangles

What is the purpose of controlling variables in an experiment?

To ensure the only factor that affects the results is the independent variable

What is the outcome of collecting enough evidence to support a hypothesis?

The hypothesis becomes a theory

What is the main difference between human error and random error in an experiment?

Human error is avoidable, while random error is not.

What is the purpose of an ethics committee in a research institution?

To examine proposals for research involving humans and ensure they meet ethical standards

What is the principle of voluntary participation in research involving human participants?

People should not be pressurized into taking part in the research.

What is the main difference between confidentiality and anonymity in research involving human participants?

Confidentiality is a stronger guarantee of privacy than anonymity.

Why might an ethics committee decide to abandon a trial and make the procedure available to the control group?

Because the effects of the trial on the experimental group are so advantageous that it seems unfair to withhold them from the control group.

What is the main purpose of informed consent in research involving human participants?

To ensure that participants are fully informed about the objectives of the research and the potential risks and benefits.

Why is it essential to halt a trial early if the results are drastically in favor of one group?

To prevent further harm to the control group

What is the primary purpose of using a placebo in medical research?

To test the effectiveness of a new medication

What is the term for the phenomenon where patients show improvement in their condition despite receiving an inactive treatment?

Placebo effect

What is the purpose of a double-blind experiment in medical research?

To reduce the risk of bias due to the placebo effect

When should a trial be abandoned, even if continued testing is desirable?

When the subjects are being adversely affected by the research

What is the purpose of a control group in a medical research study?

To compare the results to the treatment group

What is the primary reason for using a placebo that looks exactly the same as the real medication?

To prevent the subjects from knowing whether they are receiving the treatment or the placebo

What is the advantage of using a placebo in a blind experiment?

It reduces the risk of bias due to the placebo effect

What is the purpose of designing an investigation with the five principles in mind?

To prevent ethical problems from arising during the investigation

What is the benefit of using a placebo in a medical research study?

It enables the researcher to determine the effectiveness of the treatment

Study Notes

Respiratory System

  • The larynx is the organ of voice, and it contains the vocal cords, which vibrate to produce sound.
  • Air passes through the larynx, going to and from the lungs.
  • The pharynx, or throat, is where air from the nasal cavity passes through.
  • The trachea, or windpipe, carries air to and from the lungs and is lined with a mucous membrane and cells with cilia.
  • The cilia beat to move mucus and trapped particles upwards.

Nasal Cavity and Epiglottis

  • The nasal cavity contains projections that increase the internal surface area.
  • It filters, warms, and moistens air before it enters the lungs.
  • The nasal cavity contains smell receptors and acts as a resonating chamber for speech sounds.
  • Hairs and mucus trap dust in the nasal cavity.
  • The epiglottis is a flap of tissue that closes off the trachea during swallowing, preventing food and liquid from entering the lungs.

Ribs and Bronchi

  • The ribs form the framework for the chest.
  • Two primary bronchi branch from the trachea and divide into secondary and tertiary bronchi.
  • The intercostal muscles are located between the ribs and move the rib cage upwards and outwards to increase the volume of the chest cavity and lungs when breathing in.

Bronchioles and Lungs

  • Bronchioles are very fine tubes with walls of smooth muscle.
  • The finest bronchioles end in groups of air sacs, called alveoli.
  • The lungs occupy all the chest cavity, except for the space taken up by the heart.
  • The lungs are covered by a pleural membrane that also lines the inside of the chest.
  • Pleural fluid between the two layers holds the lungs against the inside of the chest.

Diaphragm

  • The diaphragm is a muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen.

Graphs

  • Bar or column graphs are used to display discrete data.
  • The data is represented by rectangles of equal width, with spaces between them.
  • The length of each rectangle indicates the quantity.
  • Rectangles are drawn horizontally for a bar graph and vertically for a column graph.
  • Histograms are used to show frequencies and have columns of equal width, but no spaces between them.

Scientific Method

  • The scientific method involves identifying a problem, collecting information, identifying variables, developing a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and interpreting the results.
  • A hypothesis is a definite statement that links the independent and dependent variables.
  • A good hypothesis is short, has a single idea, and can be tested.

Experimental Error

  • Experimental error is a limitation of the experiment itself.
  • There are three types of error: human error, random error, and systematic error.
  • Human error is a mistake, such as incorrectly reading the scale on an instrument.
  • Random errors are unpredictable and occur because no measurement can be made with absolute precision.
  • Systematic errors occur because of the way the experiment is designed or due to problems with equipment.

Ethics

  • Ethics are a set of moral principles or values.

  • Ethical behaviour is behaviour that conforms to those principles or values.

  • Ethical problems arise in scientific research, particularly research involving human participants.

  • Ethical considerations include voluntary participation, informed consent, risk of harm, confidentiality, and anonymity.

  • An ethical dilemma may arise when the effects of a trial on the experimental group are so advantageous that it seems unfair to withhold them from the control group.### Ethical Considerations in Research

  • The results of a trial may be so dramatic that it needs to be halted early to ensure the well-being of participants

  • Ethical problems arise when subjects are adversely affected by the research, and it is crucial to determine when to abandon the trial

Role of Placebos in Research

  • Placebos are used to test the effectiveness of medical treatments, such as new medicinal drugs
  • A placebo is an inactive substance that looks like the real medication, and is given to the control group in a trial
  • The placebo should be indistinguishable from the real medication in terms of appearance and administration
  • Subjects in the trial do not know whether they are receiving the real drug or the placebo

The Placebo Effect

  • The placebo effect occurs when patients who receive a placebo show an improvement in their condition, despite the placebo being inactive
  • The placebo effect is thought to be due to the patient's belief that the placebo is a real therapy that will bring about improvement

Reducing Bias in Experiments

  • Blind experiments, where subjects do not know whether they are receiving the treatment or the placebo, reduce the risk of bias due to the placebo effect
  • Double-blind experiments, where neither the researcher nor the subjects know who is receiving the treatment or the placebo, further reduce the risk of bias
  • If the test group shows a better response than the control group despite the placebo effect, the therapy can be assumed to be effective

Test your knowledge about the anatomy of the respiratory system, including the larynx, pharynx, trachea, and nasal cavity. Learn about the functions and structures of these vital organs in the human body.

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