Reproductive Hormones in Women

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43 Questions

What is the primary mode of transportation for hormones in the endocrine system?

Bloodstream

Which category do amines and peptides fall into for hormones?

Amino acids

What is the primary function of the endocrine system in maintaining homeostasis?

Slow acting hormones

Where can hormones be found in the body?

All over the body

Which hormone stimulates blood cell production in the bone marrow?

Erythropoietin

What does osteocalcin stimulate?

Insulin production

Which hormone inhibits calcitriol?

Fibroblast growth factor 23

What does cholecalciferol, produced by the skin, convert to in the kidneys?

Calcitriol

What is the role of cyclic adenosine phosphate (cAMP) as a second messenger?

It activates protein kinases to start phosphorylation

What is the effect of downregulation in response to lots of stimulation in cells?

The number of receptors decreases

Which hormone is commonly known as vasopressin?

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

What is the role of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland in the endocrine system?

They secrete a lot of hormones and stimulate secretion of hormones from other glands

What effect does growth hormone (GH) have on the body?

Promotes protein synthesis and tissue building

What is the main function of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus?

Regulates thyroid activity

What is the function of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the body?

Causes the adrenal cortex to produce corticosteroid hormones

What is the role of Gonadatropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus?

Signals the anterior pituitary to release gonadotropins

What happens if a certain amount of hormone or drug is floating in the blood?

The number of receptors decreases due to lots of stimulation

What is the main role of phosphodiesterase (PDE) in relation to cAMP?

Turns off cAMP quickly so that cells only continue to react if more hormones are produced

Which statement best describes lipid soluble hormones?

They connect with a hormone receptor in the cell to cause a change

Which hormone activates lactation in women and the development of mammary glands if pregnant?

Prolactin

What stimulates the production of melanin in response to UV light?

Melanin-releasing hormone (MRH)

Which gland is anterior to the trachea and resembles a butterfly?

Thyroid gland

What is the center of hormone production in the thyroid gland?

Colloid

What hormone connects to receptors to allow iodide ions to travel across cell membranes?

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

How are tryiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) secreted into the bloodstream?

By binding to albumin or other plasma proteins

What is the main function of the parathyroid gland?

Secretion of parathyroid hormone (PH)

Which hormone decreases blood calcium levels?

Calcitonin

Which part of the adrenal glands produces mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens?

Adrenal cortex

What does aldosterone, the most common mineralocorticoid, do?

Increases sodium levels

What does cortisol, the most common glucocorticoid, do?

Increases blood glucose levels

What hormones are produced by the adrenal medulla?

Epinephrine and norepinephrine

Which hormone inhibits the release of both insulin and glucagon?

Somatostatin

What is the primary role of cholecystokinin (CCK) in the gastrointestinal tract?

Promoting bile production

Which hormone is responsible for promoting the release of hydrochloric acid in the stomach in response to stomach distention?

Gastrin

What is the function of human placental lactogen (hPL) produced by the placenta?

Preparing the breasts for lactation

What hormone does the heart produce in response to atrial stretch and increased blood pressure?

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

What is the primary role of relaxin produced by the placenta?

Softening pubic symphysis for easier childbirth

Which hormone is responsible for regulating the menstrual cycle and maintenance of pregnancy?

Progesterone

What is the primary function of calcitriol in the body?

Activating vitamin D

Which hormone is responsible for stimulating the release of bicarbonate to buffer acidic chyme and inhibiting hydrochloric acid production in the gastrointestinal tract?

Secretin

What kind of cells make up 20% of each islet and produce glucagon?

Alpha cells

What is the primary role of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) produced by the placenta?

Protecting the fetus from immune rejection

What process involves breaking down stored triglycerides into free fatty acids or glycerol?

Lipolysis

This quiz covers the hormones involved in controlling reproductive activity and the end of reproduction in women, including gonadotropins like FSH and LH, as well as the role of prolactin in lactation and mammary gland development. It also touches on the function of prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH) and melanin-releasing hormone (MRH).

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