Lecture 3

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What is one way to ensure reciprocity in play fighting according to the text?

Mimicking aggression

Which species engages in object play mimicking maternal behavior with sticks?


What does Tinbergen emphasize as a prerequisite before answering 'why' questions about behavior?

Describing the behavior of interest

Which species engages in locomotor play by mimicking anti-predator behavior?

Mule deer

Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a way to ensure reciprocity in play according to the text?

Object Play

What is one of the criteria for behavior to qualify as play according to Burghardt?

Initiated only by unstressed animals

Which of the following is an advantage of the 5-Criteria Definition of Play?

It can differentiate play from other similar behaviors

What is exploratory behavior in animals primarily driven by?

Curiosity to learn about the surroundings

Why is it important to avoid anthropomorphic bias when identifying play in animals?

To accurately recognize play in non-human species

What distinguishes play fighting from serious fighting in many species?

It involves aggression and competition for access to body areas

In play fighting among rats, what is a key difference between serious fighting and play fighting?

Serious fighting involves simultaneous attack and defense, while play fighting involves sequential attack and defense.

What distinguishes play fighting from the behavior it mimics?

The cooperative component in play fighting makes it distinguishable from the behavior it mimics.

What happens after the loser crouches as a submission signal in an extreme example involving pigs?

The loser stands up and attacks the winner in over 30% of cases.

How do rats differentiate between serious fighting and play fighting based on the way they interact during these behaviors?

Rats engage in simultaneous attack and defense during serious fighting but sequential attack and defense during play fighting.

What percentage of encounters end amicably in serious fighting compared to play fighting?

In serious fighting, 0% of encounters end amicably, while in play fighting 30% end amicably.

Explore the concept of reciprocal encounters in animal behavior, where competition is coupled with cooperation. Discover multiple ways to ensure reciprocity, the socio-cognitive skills involved, and the benefits to be gained. Learn about combat practice, social skills enhancement, and descriptive variation in play across different species.

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