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What event prompted 20 'copycat' or 'solidarity' prison disturbances nationwide?

The Strangeways Riot

What was the purpose of the Woolf Report commissioned in the aftermath of the Strangeways Riot?

To determine the causes of the riot and propose penal reform

Which component is NOT identified as contributing to the crisis in the Orthodox account of the prison crisis?

Good conditions for both prisoners and staff

What did the Woolf Report claim to be at the time?

The most progressive penal reform agenda

How many central recommendations were made in the Woolf Report following the Strangeways Riot?

12

What was the impact of the Strangeways Riot in terms of injuries and damage?

147 officers and 47 prisoners injured; two died, £60 million damage

What does the author suggest should be established for closer cooperation between different parts of the Criminal Justice System?

National forum and local committees

Who is proposed to be the operational head and in day-to-day charge of the Prison Service?

Director General

What is proposed to be given by Ministers to the Director General of the Prison Service?

A 'compact' or 'contract'

What is suggested to be set out for each prisoner in the prison in which he or she is held?

A 'compact' or 'contract'

What does the author propose for prison establishments in terms of accommodation?

Not to hold more prisoners than provided for in its certified normal level of accommodation

What does the author propose regarding access to sanitation for all inmates?

A public commitment from Ministers setting a timetable for access to sanitation

What is suggested for maintaining prisoners' links with families and the community?

More visits, home leaves, and locating in community prisons as near to their homes as possible

What is proposed for division of prison establishments?

'Small and more manageable and secure units'

What does the author propose for remand prisoners?

'Separate statement of purpose, separate conditions, and generally a lower security categorisation'

What improvement does the author suggest for justice within prisons?

Giving reasons to a prisoner for any decision which materially and adversely affects him; a grievance procedure; disciplinary proceedings which ensure that the Governor deals with most matters under his present powers; relieving Boards of Visitors of their adjudicatory role; and providing for final access to an independent Complaints Adjudicator.

According to Mathiesen (1990), what is the main issue with prisons?

They are ineffective in preventing future crimes.

What does utilitarian theory argue about punishment?

It is justified by preventing future offending through deterrence, incapacitation, and rehabilitation.

According to Mathiesen (1990), what is the conclusion about the prison institution?

It needs a complete reassessment and possibly abolition.

What is the suggested need for the prison institution according to Mathiesen (1990)?

Complete reassessment and potential abolition.

What is the main argument against prisons according to Mathiesen (1990)?

They are not effective in preventing future crimes.

What does Mathiesen (1990) propose regarding the prison institution?

A complete reassessment leading to potential abolition.

According to Durkheim, what is the function of punishment in society?

To reinforce collective values and repair social harms

What does Durkheim suggest is the primary focus of punishment?

Reaffirmation of collective values and group solidarity

What does the prison symbolize in modern punishment according to Durkheim?

Moral superiority of non-prisoners

According to Chamberlen & Carvalho, what is the importance of social solidarity for punishment?

Not necessary for punishment to have Durkheim’s desired effect

What does Durkheim's version of the conscience collective root in?

Core or fundamental values

What does Durkheim suggest about the functional aspect of punishment in modern societies?

'Functional' for one group is 'dysfunctional' for another

According to Durkheim, what can punishment evoke in modern societies?

'Dysfunctional' social effects

What do certain types of crimes produce, according to Durkheim?

'Functional' reactions of outrage

What does punishment reinforce according to Durkheim?

People's views that certain behaviors are wrong and repairs social harms caused

What do certain crimes breach, according to Durkheim?

Core or fundamental values

Explore the concept of crisis in prisons and its implications in the context of the Orthodox account. Delve into the evidence of crisis, conditions, and injustice, with a focus on historical events such as the Strangeways Riot and the Woolf Report.

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