Principles of Management: Evolution of Management Science

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5 Questions

According to Harold Koontz, how does he define management?

Management is the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organized groups

According to Henry Fayol, what is involved in managing?

To manage is to forecast and to plan, to organise, to command, to coordinate and to control

What are the basic functions of management?

Planning, Organising, Coordinating, and Controlling

Why is management considered both an art and a science?

It is considered a science because it has an organized body of knowledge and an art because it requires certain skills which are personal possessions of managers.

What are the features of management according to the text?

Goal-oriented, integrates human, physical, and financial resources, continuous, all-pervasive, and a group activity

Study Notes

Evolution of Management Science

  • Management has gained significant importance in today's competitive business environment, and efficient management is crucial for a business unit's survival.

Definition of Management

  • Management involves utilizing available resources in the best possible way to achieve well-defined objectives.
  • It is a distinct and dynamic process that involves using different resources to achieve objectives.

The Six M's of Management

  • The six basic inputs in the management process are:
    • Men (human resources)
    • Money (financial resources)
    • Materials (physical resources)
    • Machines (technological resources)
    • Methods (operational resources)
    • Markets (customers and users)

Management Process

  • Management is the act of bringing people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively.

Management Functions

  • Management comprises:
    • Planning
    • Organizing
    • Staffing
    • Leading
    • Coordinating
    • Controlling
  • These functions aim to accomplish a goal or objective in an organization or effort.


  • Resourcing involves developing and manipulating:
    • Human resources
    • Financial resources
    • Technological resources
    • Natural resources

Test your understanding of the evolution and significance of management in the modern competitive business world. Explore the comprehensive concept of management and its role in utilizing resources for achieving business objectives.

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