Plate Tectonics Theory and Mantle Convection Quiz

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10 Questions

What is the greenhouse effect?

The warming of the surface and lower atmosphere of Earth due to the absorption and reradiation of infrared radiation by gases in the air

Which gases contribute to the greenhouse effect?

Carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases

Who is quoted saying 'Here we are, the most clever species ever to have lived. So how is it we can destroy the only planet we have?'

Jane Goodall

What causes the warming of the surface and lower atmosphere during the greenhouse effect?

Absorption and reradiation of infrared radiation by gases in the air

What is one consequence of the greenhouse effect?

Increased sea levels due to ice melting

Which celestial bodies can affect processes and phenomena on the geosphere?

All of the above

How do forces or forms of energy shape the Earth?

By causing processes like plate tectonics, erosion, and volcanic activity

What interaction takes place between dimensions of the geosphere?

They interact through processes like weathering, erosion, and deposition

What leads to Earth's surface being warmed during the greenhouse effect?

Reradiation of infrared radiation by carbon dioxide

Why is carbon dioxide considered a significant gas in causing the greenhouse effect?

It absorbs and reradiates infrared radiation efficiently

Study Notes

Earth Facts and Information

  • Planet Earth is part of the universe, with the Sun and Moon affecting natural processes on Earth.

Layers of the Earth

  • Crust: variable thickness and composition, continental (10-70km thick) and oceanic (8-10km thick)
  • Mantle: 3488km thick, composed of peridotite (intrusive igneous)
  • Core: 2883km radius, composed of Fe and Ni, with an inner core (1230km radius) and outer core (2250km thick)


  • The Geosphere comprises the lithosphere (solid), hydrosphere (liquid, especially water), atmosphere (gas envelope), cryosphere (frozen ice), and biosphere (living organisms)
  • Lithosphere: 100km thick (up to 200km thick beneath continents), very brittle, and easily fractures at low temperature
  • Asthenosphere: 250km thick, solid rock, but soft and flows easily (ductile)
  • Mesosphere: 2500km thick, solid rock, but still capable of flowing

Plate Tectonics

  • Plate tectonics theory explains how the movement of plates gives rise to different events on the lithosphere
  • Heated solid material rises from the lower mantle to the upper mantle, cools, and circles back downwards due to the temperature gradient (mantle convection)


  • Water continually evaporates from surface waters, condenses, and forms precipitation (rain, snow, sleet, hail)
  • Oceans function as temperature regulators, with a slower absorption and release of heat compared to land mass
  • The largest ocean is the Pacific Ocean, with a surface area of about 155,557,000 km2


  • The greenhouse effect is the warming of the surface and lower atmosphere due to the absorption and reradiation of infrared radiation by gases like carbon dioxide and water vapor

Hazards and Risks

  • Hazards are natural phenomena that can cause harm, while natural disasters are the consequences of these hazards
  • Examples of natural hazards include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis, and hurricanes
  • The Philippines is prone to natural hazards, including earthquakes, typhoons, and volcanic eruptions

Test your knowledge on how plate movements lead to various geologic events and the process of mantle convection. The quiz covers the basics of plate tectonics theory and the mechanism of mantle convection in Earth's interior.

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