# Physics: Work, Energy, and Power Concepts

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## Physics, Work, and Energy Class 9

### Work

Work is the energy needed to apply a force to move an object a particular distance, where the force is parallel to the displacement. It can be calculated by multiplying the force (F) and the distance (d) in the direction of the force, as follows:

$$W = F \times d$$

The SI unit of work is the Joule (J).

### Energy

Energy is defined as the capacity to do work. There are two types of energy:

1. Kinetic Energy: The energy an object possesses due to its motion. It can be calculated using the formula:

$$K.E = \frac{1}{2}mv^2$$

where m is the mass of the object and v is its velocity.

1. Potential Energy: The energy an object possesses due to its position or configuration. For example, the energy stored in an object when it is raised to a certain height is potential energy. It can be calculated using the formula:

$$P.E. = mgh$$

where m is the mass of the object, g is the acceleration due to gravity, and h is the height of the object.

### Power

Power is the rate at which work is done, and it is the work done per unit of time. The formula for power is:

$$P = \frac{W}{t}$$

where W is the work done and t is the time taken to do the work. A unit of power is the Watt (W), named after Sir James Watt, the developer of the steam engine.

### Work-Energy Theorem

The work-energy theorem states that the work done on an object increases its kinetic energy, and the work done against gravity increases its potential energy. In other words, the energy transferred to an object is equal to the work done on it.

### Examples

1. Garage Hoist: A garage hoist lifts a truck 2 meters above the ground in 15 seconds. Find the power delivered to the truck. Given that the mass of the truck is 1000 kg, the work done can be calculated as:

$$W = F \times d = 1000 \times 2 = 2000 \text{ Joules}$$

The power can then be calculated as:

$$P = \frac{W}{t} = \frac{2000}{15} = 133.33 \text{ Watts}$$

1. Potential Energy: A 500 kg object is raised 5 meters above its initial height. Find its potential energy. Using the formula:

$$P.E. = mgh = 500 \times 9.81 \times 5 = 2451.5 \text{ Joules}$$

These examples demonstrate the concepts of work, energy, and power in various situations involving physical objects and forces. By understanding these concepts and their applications, students can better grasp the principles of physics and their everyday applications.

## Description

Explore key concepts of work, energy, power, and the work-energy theorem in physics. Learn about the calculations involved in work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and power, along with real-life examples to understand their applications.