Philippine Independence Struggle

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16 Questions

What event sparked the United States' conquest of the Philippines in 1898?

Spanish-American War

What did President William McKinley promise regarding the Philippine Islands by 1916?


What major event led to the delay in granting independence to the Philippines as promised by President McKinley?

World War I in Europe

What significant development occurred for the Philippines in 1919 despite facing challenges?

Limited autonomy through the Jones Act

When did the Treaty of Manila officially end American sovereignty over the Philippines?


What did the journey to independence involve for the Philippines?

Struggles, setbacks, and progress towards autonomy

What was the purpose of the Tydings-McDuffie Act in the Philippines?

To establish a commonwealth government with the expectation of future independence.

What did the Philippine Independence Act, signed by President Roosevelt, call for?

Immediate granting of full independence to the Philippines.

What was a requirement specified in the Philippine Independence Act before complete independence could take effect?

Setting aside money for military personnel pensions.

How did the Philippine Independence Act impact US-Filipino relations?

It maintained valid treaties while granting independence to the Philippines.

What did the road to complete independence for the Philippines involve?

Progress towards autonomy through agreements with America.

What was the main concern of many groups in the Philippines regarding independence prior to the passage of the Act?

Becoming dependent on Great Britain

What was President Manuel L. Quezon's main objective in proposing immigration legislation before the passage of the Act?

Prevent further influxes of unskilled laborers and criminals

What was the main reason behind the passing of the Philippine Independence Act?

To end the period of American colonialism

What did many politicians in the Philippines seek in terms of independence before the Act was passed?

Ways to delay the process of establishing independence

How did President Manuel L. Quezon intend to control immigration before the Act was passed?

By approving legislation for allowing only qualified individuals into the country

Study Notes

In the early 20th century, the Philippines fought for their independence from American rule. The United States had conquered the islands during the Spanish-American War in 1898 after a brief campaign. During this period, Filipinos struggled under American colonialism, which included restrictions on native languages and customs, suppression of nationalist movements and political organizations, interferences with religious freedom, land expropriations for white settlers, and other discriminatory measures. By 1900, President William McKinley promised self-government to the Philippine Islands by 1916. However, when World War I broke out in Europe, both Britain and France demanded that the U.S. abandon plans to grant independence in order to divert Japanese attention away from them and toward America's colonies. Despite these challenges, some progress was made towards independence. For instance, in 1919, the Philippines was granted limited autonomy over its internal affairs through the Jones Act. This allowed for limited local constitutional government until complete independence could be achieved. Nonetheless, it would take another two decades before full independence materialized. On July 4, 1946, the Treaty of Manila was signed, officially ending American sovereignty over the Philippines. Thus, the journey to independence involved many struggles and setbacks, but ultimately led to a significant milestone in Philippine history where they gained control over their own nation.

Explore the history of the Philippines' fight for independence from American rule in the early 20th century, including the challenges faced under colonialism, promises of self-government, and the road to achieving full independence. Learn about key events and milestones that marked this significant period in Philippine history.

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